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A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence 13th Edition

A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence (13th Edition)

Book Edition13th Edition
Author(s)Martorell, Papalia
PublisherMcGraw-Hill, Inc.
The Study of Child Development: Basic Concepts
checkpoint can You
Influences on Development
what's your view
checkpoint can You
An Emerging Consensus
what's your view

Chapter 1, The Study of Child Development: Basic Concepts, checkpoint can You, Exercise 3

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The lifespan perspective of development evaluates the patterns of change and stability throughout life. It explores the biological, cognitive, psychosocial alterations, and constancies that occur throughout life.

  • Physical aspects: Changes that occur in the body's functions and anatomy consist of maturation of organs and tissues, the physical growth of systems, increasing ability of muscles and movement, developing the complexity of motor skills, sensory process, and the ability to integrate information from the environment to ensure the health and proper functioning. For example, the prenatal development that helps sustain life after birth, the major development during puberty, and then how the body changes during old age. 
  • Cognitive aspects: Changes in mental processes corresponding to different stages and situations in life. It consists of an individual's ability to organize and interpret the information received from the environment. Mental processes include memory development, language and communication skills, judgment and reasoning ability, problem-solving, attention, and concentration. 
  • Psychosocial aspects: Influence of social interactions on the development of unique characteristics within an individual, including their emotions, feelings, and changing behavior patterns. 
  • The changes in each area take place simultaneously, and growth in one area also influences changes in another. For example, as the children grow physically, there are changes in their cognitive ability as well, to adjust to the environment more effectively. Further, such developments influence their psychosocial development related to self-identity and efficacy. 

Verified Answer

Scholars in the field are focused on changes in all the areas of growth, throughout the stages of life. The main areas of interest include:

  • Physical.
  • Cognitive.
  • Psychosocial.


Although explained separately, these aspects are linked to one another in the following way:

  • Physical changes during puberty can affect an individual's mood and self-identity. 
  • An individual's moral development may influence how they interact with others in society. 
  • An individual's interaction with their environment, for example, through play, may determine the development of various motor skills and eye-hand coordination as well as self-esteem. 
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