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A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence 13th Edition

A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence (13th Edition)

Book Edition13th Edition
Author(s)Martorell, Papalia
PublisherMcGraw-Hill, Inc.
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Play:The Business of Early Childhood
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Relationships with Other Children

Chapter 11, Gender, checkpoint can You, Exercise 08

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The following justifications can illustrate the physiological basis:

  • Though some hormones are present in both sexes, they differ in the amount and the effect it has on different parts of the body. The sex hormone testosterone is present in significant amounts in men, and when it is released in the womb, it affects the hypothalamus. It leads to the masculinization of the brain. It is regarded as the male sex hormone and tends to regulate sex drives (libido), muscle mass, strength, and causes typical male attributes like aggression and competitiveness. On the other hand, estrogen, the female sex hormone, regulates the menstrual cycle, controls breast size, hair, skin, and emotions. 
  • Females use both right and left hemispheres while carrying out language tasks, while the males only use the left side. It is because in males the two hemispheres work more independently than females.
  • Males have XY chromosomes, while females have XX chromosomes. The SRY gene on the Y chromosome causes the gonads of the embryo to develop into testes (which leads to the development of a male offspring). A low level or absence of this gene can lead to the fetus developing into a female despite the presence of a Y chromosome. Atypical chromosomes cause individuals to develop differently both socially and cognitively.
  • The brain size of males and females tends to differ from another because as compared to females, males have a higher total brain volume, whereas, females' brains tend to be 11% smaller than males, but their brains have thicker cortices. These differences in brain size can be one of the reasons for the behavioral differences among males and females.

Verified Answer

There are certain differences between males and females biologically.

  • Presence of different hormones or different levels of the same hormone in different gender. In males, the primary sex hormone is testosterone, whereas, in females, the primary sex hormone is estrogen. 
  • Presence of different combinations of X and Y chromosomes (thread-like structures of nucleic acids and proteins that contain genes). 
  • Males and females tend to have differences in brain density, as males have more gray matter than females, but female brains tend to have more complex neural density. 
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