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A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence 13th Edition

A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence (13th Edition)

Book Edition13th Edition
Author(s)Martorell, Papalia
ISBN9780078035432
PublisherMcGraw-Hill, Inc.
SubjectPsychology
Early Growth and Physical Development
checkpoint can You
Nutrition and Feeding Methods
checkpoint can You
The Brain and Reflex Behavior
what's your view
Motor Development
checkpoint can You

Chapter 6, Early Growth and Physical Development, checkpoint can You, Exercise 02

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Explanation

The distinct patterns of a child's growth are in terms of their height, weight, and body shape. The varied patterns of growth in the initial phases of development can be described in the following manner. 

 

  • Weight: In terms of weight, the infants begin to lose five percent of their body weight in the first few days of their life. This takes place as the child gets used to the feeding, and the elimination of waste from the body. However, this loss in body mass is temporary because the child begins to gain weight distinctly. As children complete 6 months, they weigh about 7.25 kilograms. By the end of the first year, the child displays a weight of approximately 11 kilograms. However, in the second year, they weigh around 14 kilograms and by the third year, the child is around 15 kilograms. 
  • Height: In terms of height, there is a sudden spurt of height during the first year as they display an increase in 0.25 meters. However, this growth spurt begins to decrease as children enter the second and third year of their lives. In the second year, the child grows about 0.12 meters, and in the third year, the growth spurt lowers even more to 0.06 meters. There are only slight differences in height between boys and girls. 
  • Other growth patterns: The other growth patterns include, the teething process and the body proportions.

In the initial stages of the child in the womb, the head is half of the entire body's length. As the child is born, it is at 25 percent of the entire body's length. At birth, the brain of the child is about 25 percent of the adult brain. By the second year, the brain is about 75 percent of the adult brain and by the third year, it is at 80 percent of the adult brain. 

 

In the case of the teething process, the lower front teeth appear between the 5th and 9th months of the child's life. The upper front teeth appear between the 8th and 12th months. By the third year of the child's life, they have about 20 teeth. 

 

The body shape of a child varies greatly between the first year and the third. As the child begins to slowly wean off the breast milk and is introduced to solid foods, the child also becomes active and engages in other physical activities. These changes contribute to the change in the shape of their bodies as they become lankier, and have longer hands and neck. 

Sample Response

 Growth in the initial phases of their development includes: 

 

In terms of weight, boys and girls follow an almost similar trend. 

 

  • Nearly half of the first year, the child weighs around  7.25 kilograms.
  • After 12 months the child weighs slightly more than 11 kilograms. 
  • By 24 months the child weighs approximately 14 kilograms. 
  • By the 48th month, the child weighs about 15.5 kilograms.

 

In terms of height: 

 

  • At 12 months the child gains 0.25 meters. 
  • At 24 months the child gains 0.12 meters. 
  • At 48 months the child gains 0.06 meters. 

 

Boys and girls display similarity in the patterns of their growth, although the girls remain slightly shorter than boys.

 

In terms of other growth patterns: 

 

  • The eruption of teeth in infants and toddlers may occur first in 4 months. Between the 12th and the 24th month, the child acquires the first set of teeth. 
  • The children until the 12th month display a rounder shape than a 48th-month-old child with a thinner and skinny feature.
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