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A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence 13th Edition

A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence (13th Edition)

Book Edition13th Edition
Author(s)Martorell, Papalia
ISBN9780078035432
PublisherMcGraw-Hill, Inc.
SubjectPsychology
Studying Cognitive Development; Six Approaches
checkpoint can You
Psychometric Approach: Developmental and Intelligence Testing
checkpoint can You
Piagetian Approach: The Sensorimotor Stage
Social-Contextual Approach: Learning From Interactions with Caregivers
checkpoint can You

Chapter 7, Studying Cognitive Development; Six Approaches, checkpoint can You, Exercise 01

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Explanation

The development mentioned refers to the changes that occur in an individual's thought processes such as perception, memory, problem-solving, and decision making. Six different perspectives can be followed to understand the development of thought processes in children. They are,

  • Behaviorist approach: This perspective focuses on the overt behaviors of children. It studies the influence of different experiences and interactions of children on their behaviors. It aims to understand the underlying procedures of learning. For example, researchers study the development of behaviors in children that occur due to the reinforcement and punishment they receive. 
  • Psychometric approach: This perspective makes use of measurement tools to understand the development in the thought processes of children. It focuses on the measurable traits of thought processes and compares the scores children obtain on the tools designed to measure these traits to understand their development. For example, assessing comprehension, reasoning, and memory abilities in children using intelligence tests.
  • Piagetian approach: This perspective focuses on the changes that occur in children's thought processes as they grow up. It focuses on the way the environment influences cognition and how development is propelled by maturation. For example, the development of a child can be assessed by the presence of certain characteristic behaviors that children of a particular age group show. For example, purposefully changing their actions to see the consequences they would have can usually be seen in children by the age of 12-18 months. If children do not show such behaviors, it could be an indicator of a developmental delay.
  • Information-processing approach: This perspective focuses on the different processes that children apply to the information they receive, such as perception, memory, and retrieval. This perspective aims to study the development of these different processes in children. For example, researchers study information processing in infants by studying how long they take to process a stimulus.
  • Cognitive-neuroscience approach: This perspective studies the different brain areas used in cognitive functioning and how the development in these areas results in the development of thought processes. This perspective focuses on identifying the different brain areas involved and studying their influence on the development of thought processes. For example, using brain scans, the development of the hippocampus is seen which is related to the ability of an individual to store memories for a long time.
  • Social-contextual approach: This perspective studies the development of children's thought processes by understanding the influence of their environment on them. This perspective aims to study the effect of culture on the thought processes of children. For example, language development in children is inhibited if their caregivers do not interact with them appropriately. The lag in language development could also affect the development of other areas.

Verified Answer

To understand the development of thought processes in children, different perspectives can be followed.

  • A behaviorist approach studies development by understanding the changes in a child's behavior.
  • A psychometric approach uses tools to measure intelligence.
  • The Piagetian approach focuses on the changes that occur in cognitive functioning.
  • An information processing approach tries to understand the way information presented is perceived, stored, and used.
  • A cognitive neuroscience approach understands cognitive development by understanding the functioning of different brain areas involved in thought processes.
  • The social-contextual approach focuses on the influence that a child's interactions with the environment have on their thoughts. 
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