It is very important for researchers to know where a gene can be found on a chromosome to understand its function.
Genetic mapping can be performed by cytogenetic mapping, linkage mapping, or physical mapping. The cytogenetic map provides researchers with the locus or the site at which a gene may be found. The linkage map gives precise information regarding the distance between two genes in map units. From the map distance between 2 genes, researchers can estimate if the genes will be inherited together. The physical map provides information regarding the distance between 2 genes based on the number of base pairs that separate them.
Genetic mapping is the method by which the genes on the chromosomes are identified. Their relative distance from each other is estimated and graphically represented to understand the interaction between them.