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Exploring Anatomy & Physiology in the Laboratoryl: Core Concepts  2nd Edition

Exploring Anatomy & Physiology in the Laboratoryl: Core Concepts (2nd Edition)

Book Edition2nd Edition
PublisherMorton Publishing

Chapter 6, End of Chapter, Quiz, Exercise 1

Page 161

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Compact bone is present inside the periosteum, while spongy bone is located deep inside the compact bone. 


Compact bone is hard tissue that consists of a functional unit known as osteon. The various components of compact bone in Image A include:

  1. Interstitial lamellae: These are the interstitial spaces between the osteons in compact bone tissues. They are usually formed as a result of the resorption of osteons.
  2. Concentric lamellae: These are the lamellae that encircle the osteons present in the central canal.
  3. Periosteum: The periosteum is a very thin membrane that wraps the bones, except the joints. It is a membrane consisting of vascular connective tissue for adequate blood and nutrient supply to the bone tissue.
  4. Perforating canal: Perforating canals, also called Volkmann's canals, lie at the base of an osteon. These are empty spaces that link the blood vessels of the central canal to those across the bone.
  5. Endosteum: The endosteum is the inner vascular membrane  in the medullary cavity of the bone. It is only two cell thick [osteoblasts].
  6. Trabeculae of spongy bone: Spongy bone, also known as cancellous bone, has thin columns and plates called trabeculae.
  7. Osteon: Osteons are the long cylindrical structures that are made up of osteocytes. They are connected by canaliculi for adequate blood and nutrient supply.

Image B represents the structure of an osteon. An osteon consists of the following parts:

  1. Central canal: The central canal is also known as the Haversian canal. It is located at the center of the osteon and is surrounded by concentric lamellae. The canal is supplied with nerves and blood vessels.
  2. Lacunae with osteocytes: Lacunae are small chambers in an ossified bone. They are occupied by osteocytes, which are bone-forming cells that are derived from osteoblasts.
  3. Canaliculi: The spaces called lacunae consist of canaliculi. The canaliculi include radiating processes of osteocytes, the bone-forming cells.

Verified Answer

A: Starting from top and moving in clockwise direction:

  1. Interstitial lamellae
  2. Concentric lamellae
  3. Periosteum
  4. Perforating canal
  5. Endosteum
  6. Trabeculae of spongy bone
  7. Osteon

B: Starting from top and moving in clockwise direction:

  1. Central canal
  2. Lacunae with osteocytes
  3. Canaliculi
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