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Psychology 8th Edition

Psychology (8th Edition)

Book Edition8th Edition
Author(s)Hockenbury, Nolan
PublisherMacmillan Publishing, Inc
Introduction: What is Psychology
Key Questions
The Humanistic Perspective on Personality
The Social Cognitive Perspective on Personality
Critical Thinking Questions
The Trait Perspective on Personality
Assessing Personality: Psychological Tests
Section PFYL: PS: ITP: Psych for Your Life: Possible Selves: Imagine the Possibilities
Myth or Science

Chapter 11, Introduction: What is Psychology, Key Questions, Exercise 01

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Here is a tip:

Personality theories are used to help compare and contrast individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.


  • Personality refers to a person's unique behaviors, thoughts, and emotions, which as a whole tend to be relatively stable across time.
  • The humanistic approach to personality views each person as a unique individual who is able to actively work towards their full potential. This perspective places significance on understanding that people have free will and can better themselves through their own intention and positive attitude.
  • Early childhood experiences are a major component of the psychoanalytic theory, which suggests that traumatic, impactful, or unique life experiences within the first few years of life may play a significant role in the development of personality, even if a person is unaware of these events that occurred in their childhood.
  • Trait theories of personality focus on the unique traits an individual possesses. These traits are characteristics, or qualities, used to describe a person such as being outgoing, sensitive, practical, and conscientiousness.
  • The social cognitive perspective include aspects of mental processes such as goal setting, self-regulation (how well an individual can monitor and manage their emotions and behaviors), and self-esteem (how positively and confidently one views themself).

Verified Answer

Among the most prominent theories used to explain personality include:

  • The humanistic perspective, which takes a positive view on human nature, suggesting individuals are capable of achieving their full potential through deliberate action.
  • The psychoanalytic approach, which places significance on the influence of early childhood experiences and the unconscious mind.
  • The trait perspective, which emphasizes that an individual has unique personality characteristics that can be described and measured.
  • The social cognitive perspective, which focuses on the interactive effect of thoughts about the self, observations of others and cognitive processes such as learning on personality.
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