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Psychology 8th Edition

Psychology (8th Edition)

Book Edition8th Edition
Author(s)Hockenbury, Nolan
PublisherMacmillan Publishing, Inc
Classical Conditioning: Associating Stimuli
Myth or Science
Contemporary Views of Classical Conditioning
Section OC: ABAC: Operant Conditioning: Associating Behaviors and Consequences
Think LIke a Scientist
Critical Thinking Questions
Contemporary Views of Operant Conditioning
Myth or Science
Section OL: ITAOO: Observational Learning: Imitating the Actions of Others
Myth or Science
Critical Thinking Questions

Chapter 5, Classical Conditioning: Associating Stimuli, Key Questions, Exercise 01

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Here is a tip:

Classical conditioning was originally discovered in experiments with dogs.


  • Classical conditioning pairs something neutral in the environment (e.g., the sound of a bell) and a natural behavior (e.g., drooling when food is presented). With repeated pairings, an organism learns to associate the neutral stimulus with a behavior automatically (e.g., drooling when the bell rings even if there is no food).
  • Operant conditioning relies on rewards and punishments to change an organism's behavior.
    • Rewarding a dog with treats increases its likelihood of sitting on command.
    • Punishing a child by taking away their toys decreases the likelihood that they will scream in public.

Sample Response

Learning that happens as a result of pairing an action or behavior with something in the environment (such as a reward or punishment, or another event) is called conditioning. Conditioning yields a long-term change in behavior. The two forms of conditioning are operant and classical.

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