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Psychology 8th Edition

Psychology (8th Edition)

Book Edition8th Edition
Author(s)Hockenbury, Nolan
PublisherMacmillan Publishing, Inc
Section R: GIFLM: Retrieval: Getting Information from Long-Term Memory
Myth or Science
Forgetting: When Retrieval Fails
Figure Question
Myth or Science
Section IM: EDAFM: Imperfect Memories: Errors, Distortions, and False Memories
Think LIke a Scientist
Critical Thinking Questions
The Search for the Biological Basis of Memory
Myth or Science

Chapter 6, Introduction: What is Memory, Key Questions, Exercise 01

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Here is a tip:

To remember what the capital of Kansas is, the information has to get both into and out of memory.


  • Encoding involves the sensory systems⁠—sight, audition (hearing), olfaction (smell), gustation (taste), and touch⁠—sending information to their specific memory centers.
    • For example, encoding information from eating a meal may involve tasting the flavor on the tongue and sending the sensations from the taste center to places they will be stored.
  • Storage of memories can be short-term (about thirty seconds) and often long-term (permanent). The content of the information being stored will determine where in the brain it will go.
    • For example, information about an anatomy lecture may be stored in short-term memory when a student is in class hearing it for the first time. The information will then be stored in long-term memory in an area containing other biology information until it is needed for an exam.
  • Retrieval happens through recall or when prompted by a question or experience that requires an information.
    • For example, when asked to list the bones of the face in an exam, the conscious mind searches for that information in long-term memory to write down the answer.

Sample Response

There are three basic processes of memory:

  • Encoding is the process of getting sensory information into memory by translating it into signals the brain can process.
  • Storage is the process of keeping information in memory.
  • Retrieval is the process of locating and consciously producing information.
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