Chapter 6, Introduction: What is Memory, Key Questions, Exercise 01
Here is a tip:
To remember what the capital of Kansas is, the information has to get both into and out of memory.
Encoding involves the sensory systems—sight, audition (hearing), olfaction (smell), gustation (taste), and touch—sending information to their specific memory centers.
For example, encoding information from eating a meal may involve tasting the flavor on the tongue and sending the sensations from the taste center to places they will be stored.
Storage of memories can be short-term (about thirty seconds) and often long-term (permanent). The content of the information being stored will determine where in the brain it will go.
For example, information about an anatomy lecture may be stored in short-term memory when a student is in class hearing it for the first time. The information will then be stored in long-term memory in an area containing other biology information until it is needed for an exam.
Retrieval happens through recall or when prompted by a question or experience that requires an information.
For example, when asked to list the bones of the face in an exam, the conscious mind searches for that information in long-term memory to write down the answer.
There are three basic processes of memory:
Encoding is the process of getting sensory information into memory by translating it into signals the brain can process.
Storage is the process of keeping information in memory.
Retrieval is the process of locating and consciously producing information.