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Visual Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology 1st Edition

Visual Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology (1st Edition)

Book Edition1st Edition
Author(s)Martini, Ober
PublisherPearson Higher Education
Section 16.1: Cells obtain most of their ATP from the electron transport system, which is linked to the citric acid style
Section 16.2: Cells can break down any available substrate from the nutrient pool to obtain the energy they need
Section EOS1: End of Section 1
Section 16.3: Carbohydrates are usually the preferred substrates for catabolism and ATP production under resting conditions
Section 16.4: Lipids reach the bloodstream in chylomicrons; the cholesterol is then extracted and released is lipoproteins
Section 16.5: An amino acid not needed for protein synthesis may be broken down or converted to a different amino acid
Section 16.6: Vitamins and minerals are essential to the function of many metabolic pathways
Section 16.7: Proper nutrition depends on eating a balanced diet
Section 16.8: The control of appetite is complex and involves both short-term and long-term mechanisms
Section 16.9: Clinical Module: Metabolic disorders may result from inadequate nutrition, biochemical problems, or starvation
Section EOS2: End of Section 2
Section 16.10: The body uses energy continuously, and to maintain a constant body temperature, heat gain and heat loss must be in balance
Section 16.11: Thermoregulatory centers in the hypothalamus adjust heat loss and heat gain
Section EOS3: End of Section 3
Section 17.1: The kidneys are paired retroperitoneal organs

Chapter 16, Section 16.1, Module Review, Exercise a

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Here is a tip:

Glycolysis and citric acid cycle do not occur in the same location.


  • One ATP molecule is produced in a single turn of the citric acid cycle.
  • The hydrogen atoms from the organic molecules such as succinate and isocitrate are transferred to the molecules FAD and NAD, which are converted into the electron carriers FADH2 and NADH, respectively. These electron carriers are then used in the electron transport chain to generate ATP.

Verified Answer

  • The citric acid cycle occurs in the mitochondria, where it completely oxidizes the derivatives of glucose into carbon dioxide.
  • It is involved in the production of energy and in the biosynthesis of intermediates and electron carriers.
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