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Visual Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology 1st Edition

Visual Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology (1st Edition)

Book Edition1st Edition
Author(s)Martini, Ober
PublisherPearson Higher Education
Section 19.1: Cleavage continues until the blastocyst implants in the uterine wall
Section 19.2: Gastrulation produces three germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm
Section 19.3: The extra-embryonic membranes form the placenta that supports fetal growth and development
Section 19.4: The placenta performs many vital functions for the duration of prenatal development
Section 19.5: Organ systems are formed in the first trimester and become functional in the second and third trimesters
Section 19.6: Pregnancy places anatomical and physiological stresses on maternal systems
Section 19.7: Multiple factors initiate and accelerate the process of labor
Section 19.8: After delivery, development initially requires nourishment by maternal systems
Section 19.9: At puberty, male and female sex hormones have differential effects on most body systems
Section EOS1: End of Section 1
Section 19.10: Genes and chromosomes determine patterns of inheritance
Section 19.11: Clinical Module: Thousands of clinical disorders have been linked to abnormal chromosomes and /or genes
Section EOS2: End of Section 2
Section Review

Chapter 19, Section 19.1, Module Review, Exercise a

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Here is a tip:

The word "cleavage" means splitting or separating.


The egg fuses with the sperm, each containing 23 chromosomes, resulting in a diploid somatic cell. This phenomenon, termed as fertilization, occurs in the ampulla followed by cleavage. The cytoplasm of the zygote continues to divide to form smaller blastomeres. A group of blastomeres formed as a result of cleavage is termed as pre-embryo. 

Verified Answer

Cleavage is defined as the process by which the fertilized egg proliferates repeatedly to produce a large number of daughter cells.

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