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Visual Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology 1st Edition

Visual Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology (1st Edition)

Book Edition1st Edition
Author(s)Martini, Ober
PublisherPearson Higher Education
Section 4.1: The epidermis is composed of layers with various functions
Section 4.2: Factors influencing skin color include epidermal pigmentation and dermal circulation
Section 4.3: The dermis supports the epidermis, and the hypodermis connects the dermis to the rest of the body
Section 4.4: The integument has endocrine functions that require ultraviolet radiation
Section EOS1: End of Section 1
Section 4.5: Hair is composed of dead, keratinized cells produced in a specialized hair follicle
Section 4.6: Sebaceous glands and sweat glands are exocrine glands found in the skin
Section 4.7: Nails are thick sheets of keratinized epidermal cells that protect the fingers and toes
Section 4.8: Clinical Module: Age-related changes
Section 4.9: Clinical Module: The integument can often repair itself, even after extensive damage
Section EOS2: End of Section 2

Chapter 4, Section 4.1, Module Review, Exercise a

Page 125

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The skin produces cells in the deepest epidermal layer. Cells are pushed to the exterior surface of the body by the new cells being formed in layers below them.


  • Normally, the outer layer of skin epidermis, the stratum corneum, sheds off every 30-40 days. However, when a person develops dandruff, the shedding off of the skin is faster than the normal rate. This creates a build up of keratinized skin cells which is known as dandruff. 
  • The five layers of the epidermis are arranged in a way that the bottom layer is where the actively dividing cells are located going towards the layer in the free surface of the epidermis where stack of dead or keratinized or cornified squamous cells are piled up. The stratum corneum is the 5th outer layer.

Verified Answer

Dandruff is composed of cells that were shed from the stratum corneum of the epidermal layer of the skin.

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