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Visual Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology 1st Edition

Visual Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology (1st Edition)

Book Edition1st Edition
Author(s)Martini, Ober
PublisherPearson Higher Education
Section 5.1: Bones are classified according to shape and structure
Section 5.2: Long bones have a rich blood supply
Section 5.3: Bone has a calcified matrix associated with osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts
Section 5.4: Compact bone consists of parallel osteons, and spongy bone consists of a network of trabeculae
Section 5.5: The most common method of bone formation involves the replacement of cartilage with bone
Section 5.6: Clinical Module: Abnormalities of bone growth
Section 5.7: Clinical Module: A fracture is a crack or a break
Section EOS1: End of Section 1
Section 5.8: Facial bones dominate the anterior skull, and cranial bones dominate the posterior surface
Section 5.9: Surface features of the skull are functional landmarks
Section 5.10: Additional landmarks are visible in sectional views of the skull
Section 5.11: The associated bones of the skull perform specialized functions
Section 5.12: Fontanelles permit cranial growth in infants and small children
Section 5.13: The vertebral column has four spinal curves, and vertebrae have both anatomical similariies and regional differences
Section 5.14: There are 7 cervical vertebrae and 12 thoracic vertebrae
Section 5.15: There are five lumbar vertebrae, and the sacrum and coccyx consist of fused vertebrae
Section 5.17: Clinical Module: Abnormalities in the axial skeleton directly affect posture and balance
Section 5.18: The pectoral girdles-the clavicles and scapula-connect the upper limbs to the axial skeleton
Section 5.19: The humerus of the arm articulates with the radius and ulna of the forearm
Section 5.20: The wrist is composed of carpal bones, and the hand consists of metacarpal bones and phalanges
Section 5.21: The hip bone forms by the fusion of the illium, ischium, and pubis
Section 5.22: The pelvis consists of the two hip bones plus the sacrum and the coccyx
Section 5.23: The femur articulates with the patella and tibia
Section 5.24: The ankle and foot contain tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges
Section EOS2: End of Section 2
Section Review
Section 5.25: Synovial joints (diarthroses) are freely moveable and contain synovial fluid
Section 5.26: Anatomical organization determines the functional properties of synovial joints
Section 5.27: Clinical Module: Adjacent vertebrae are seperated by intervertebral discs that are compressed by the weight of the trunk
Section 5.28: Clinical Module: Arthritis can disrupt normal joint structure and function
Section EOS3: End of Section 3

Chapter 5, Section 5.1, Module Review, Exercise a

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Here is a tip:

The 206 bones that comprise the human skeletal system are classified into six different categories and are named according to shape.


  1. Flat Bones are commonly thin and flattened, as the name suggests. They have many functions, but they mainly provide a point of attachment for muscles and protect the internal organs. An example of a flat bone is the frontal bone of the skull.
  2. Irregular Bones are found in a variety of shapes and do not fit into the other categories of bone shapes. One example of an irregular bone is the vertebrae.
  3. Long Bones are usually long and thin in the middle with enlarged ends. They function as levers when prompted by skeletal muscles. They are located in the upper limb (humerus, ulna, radius), lower limb (femur, tibia, fibula), hands (metacarpals, phalanges), and feet (metatarsals, phalanges). 
  4. Sesamoid Bones form in tendons to help tendons located alongside the joints. The term sesamoid refers to being like a sesame seed: small and flat. A well-known sesamoid bone is the patella.
  5. Short Bones are somewhat like cubes, being approximately equal in length, width, and thickness. They provide stability and support as well as limited motion for the carpal bones (wrists) and tarsal bones (ankles).
  6. Sutural Bones are also known as Wormianbones. They are found in the skull because they form within the sutures that separate bones of the skull.

Verified Answer

  1. Flat Bone
  2. Irregular Bone
  3. Long Bone
  4. Sesamoid Bone
  5. Short Bone
  6. Sutural Bone
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