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Visualizing Human Biology 5th Edition

Visualizing Human Biology (5th Edition)

Book Edition5th Edition
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons
Section 12.1: Cancer Cells Develop in Distinct Ways
Think Critically
Section 12.2: Cancer Has Many Causes
Think Critically
Concept Check
Section 12.3: Cancer Can Strike Almost Any Part of the Body
What a Scientist Sees
Concept Check
Section 12.4: Cancer Can Be Diagnosed and Treated Effectively
End of Chapter

Chapter 12, Section 12.1, Think Critically, Exercise 01

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The cervical cancer screening is done, which is the essential part of the healthy routine check-up in females. All cervical cancer is done due to the infection caused by the sexually transmitted virus known as the human papilloma (HPV) virus. 

Cancer involves the precancerous lesions which are caused by HPV. It is based progressively to stop the growth and damage of the healthy cells of the tissue. 


Based on the cytology-based screening test results, the common cervical cancer detection method that is the Pap smear test can be used for the observation. 

The screening involves the three following ways to approach and validate the observations change in the cervical lesions such as:

  1. HPV testing has a high risk of HPV virus in the cervical cells: In this case, the cells have a high risk of infection with the HPV virus such as cells of the vagina, vulva, penis, anus, and oropharynx. This test is done by removing the cells of the cervical and are combi, which tends 
  2. Pap testing: All the early changes in the cervical cells are observed, which tends to change in cancer, also known as precancerous cells are visualized. The pathologist usually visualizes the specimen through the abnormal cells.
  3. Pap coasting involves the observation of the cervical cell changes along with the determination of the high risk for HPV.  


The pap testing is used when there is an improved visualization of the squamous cells abnormalities such as squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix region. As it does not help to show the positive test result for the adenocarcinoma and glandular abnormalities of the cervix cells. 

Atypical squamous epithelial cells (ASEC) are considered to be the common abnormal findings for the Pap smear test. 

Similarly, low-grade abnormalities in the squamous epithelial cells are also visualized under the mild abnormalities as it is also caused by the HPV. The squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is well screened in the Pap test because it infects deeper into the cell. 

Moreover, the other infections of cancer such as adenocarcinoma, atypical glandular cells, and endocervical adenocarcinoma type of cancer show the typical changes in the cancer cell but do not gives the positive pap test and are not found to spread beyond the glandular tissue. 

Verified Answer

The cytology-based screening is done for the observation of cancer detection. The visualization of some time squamous cells abnormalities such as squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix region helps to show the positive test result, whereas the adenocarcinoma and glandular abnormalities of the cervix cells give the negative test result to validate the cancer detection by the pap testing method. 

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