Chapter 20, End of Chapter, Self-Test Questions and Problems, Exercise ST-1
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Define each of the following terms:


a. Cumulative; adjustable-rate preferred stock

b. Arrearages

c. Lessee; lessor

d. Sale and leaseback; operating lease; financial lease

e. Off-balance-sheet financing; FAS 13 (or ASC 840); ASC 842

f. Residual value

g. Warrant; detachable warrant; stepped-up exercise price

h. Convertible security; conversion ratio, CR; conversion price, Pc; conversion value, Ct

i. Basic EPS; diluted EPS

Here is a tip:

Congress felt there was a need for additional investor protections against inaccurate information from companies. 


In 2002, Congress passed this act to protect shareholders, employees and the public from accounting errors and fraudulent financial practices. There were 3 key provisions:

  1. Overhauling incentives and independence in the audit process.
  2. Providing harsher penalties for providing false information.
  3. Requiring companies to validate their internal financial control processes.

Verified Answer

The Sarbanes-Oxley act, passed by Congress in 2002, is intended to improve the accuracy of information which is made public by both board members and shareholders of public companies.

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