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A History of Modern Psychology 11th Edition

A History of Modern Psychology (11th Edition)

Book Edition11th Edition
Author(s)Schultz, Schultz
Chapter 5, End of Chapter, Review Questions, Exercise 1
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What kind of information was Titchener looking for when he had his students swallow rubber tubes and take notebooks to the bathroom?

Here is a tip:

The process of introspection helps to enhance the self-awareness of a person and gain deeper insight into their feelings and behavior.


Titchener designed an experiment in which some students were directed to insert a rubber tube into their esophagus for the whole day. Subsequently, hot and cold water was drained down the rubber tube into the stomach. The students were then told to take a notebook to the bathroom and write what they were feeling.

The main aim of the experiment conducted was to check the responsiveness of the bodily organs of the students. The students were told to analyze the ideas, responses, and feelings that they were experiencing during the process of excretion. This process is called introspection.

Introspection is the process in which a person accurately and orderly observes a conscious experience. It is an entirely subjective experience. This is why it can only be recognized by the one who experiences it.

Verified Answer

The main aim of the experiment conducted by Edward Titchener was to study the sensitivity of the internal organs. In the experiment where university students were asked to consume a rubber tube, hot and cold water was poured down the tube and the students were told to record and report their feelings and thoughts. In another experiment, they had to take a diary with them to record their feelings whenever they went to the washroom to urinate or defecate.

This process is called introspection. In this process, a person examines their thoughts and feelings. Since this process is subjective, only the person experiencing the feelings can observe them.

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