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Life-Span Human Development  9th Edition

Life-Span Human Development (9th Edition)

Book Edition9th Edition
Author(s)Rider, Sigelman
PublisherCengage Learning
Section 8.1: Conceptualizing Memory
Making Connections
Section 8.2: The Infant
Checking Mastery
Making Connections
Section 8.3: The Child
Section 8.4: The Adolescent
Checking Mastery
Making Connections
Section 8.5: The Adult
Figure Question
Checking Mastery
Chapter 8, Section 8.1, Checking Mastery, Exercise 1
Page 239

What steps are required in order to learn, remember, and recall material?

Here is a tip:

Encoding, storage, and retrieval are the three primary processes of memory. 


The four steps that are primarily involved in the learning and application of a new concept or idea are:


  • Encoding the information, this means adding the information into the memory system.
  • Consolidating the information, this means stabilizing the trace of memory after its initial acquisition. This involves organizing the information that aids its long-term storage. The synaptic consolidation can occur within minutes after learning, whereas system consolidation can take a longer time. Sleep can facilitate the mechanism of consolidation. This is seen in the brain activity patterns through the sleep spindles or neural activity during REM [rapid eye movement sleep] whereby the newer learning is connected to the prior material or knowledge.
  • Holding on to the information for some time through the process of storage. The length of the period of time differs depending on the stage of memory being used.
  • Retrieving the information from the long-term memory that was acquired and stored in the past by using the memory recall. 

Verified Answer

Several steps are involved in learning a concept, storing it, remembering it, and retrieving it when the requirement arises:


  • It is important to encode or put the information in the memory system.
  • The organization or consolidation of information- The synaptic consolidation happens in hours or minutes after initial learning, whereas the system consolidation takes a longer time. The consolidation happens in the REM stage of sleep.
  • The storage of information in a long-term memory.
  • The retrieval takes place through recall memory by the active efforts for retrieval or recognition memory with the help of cues.
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