Compute the realized and recognized gain or loss and the new basis in the following transactions, all of which took place pursuant to a plan of recapitalization.
a. A shareholder exchanged 100 shares of $5 par value preferred stock with a basis of $1,000 for 200 shares of $4 par value common stock worth $800.
b. A bond holder exchanged a bond with a basis of $800 and a par value of $1,000 and received 50 shares of common stock worth $1,050.
c. A shareholder exchanged stock with a basis of $2,000 for bonds worth $5,500 and a par value of $4,000.
d. A bondholder exchanged a bond with a basis of $900 and a par value of $1,000 for another bond with a value of $1,500 and a par value of $1,500.