PROBLEM 6–27 Various CVP Questions: Break-Even Point; Cost Structure; Target
Northwood Company manufactures basketballs. The company has a ball that sells for
$25. At present, the ball is manufactured in a small plant that relies heavily on direct
labor workers. Thus, variable costs are high, totaling $15 per ball, of which 60% is direct
labor cost.
Last year, the company sold 30,000 of these balls, with the following results:
Sales (30,000 balls). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $750,000
Variable expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450,000
Contribution margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300,000
Fixed expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210,000
Net operating income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 90,000
Required:
1. Compute (a) the CM ratio and the break-even point in balls, and (b) the degree of
operating leverage at last year’s sales level.
2. Due to an increase in labor rates, the company estimates that variable costs will
increase by $3 per ball next year. If this change takes place and the selling price per ball
remains constant at $25, what will be the new CM ratio and break-even point in balls?
3. Refer to the data in (2) above. If the expected change in variable costs takes place, how
many balls will have to be sold next year to earn the same net operating income
($90,000) as last year?
4. Refer again to the data in (2) above. The president feels that the company must raise
the selling price of its basketballs. If Northwood Company wants to maintain the same
CM ratio as last year, what selling price per ball must it charge next year to cover the
increased labor costs?
5. Refer to the original data. The company is discussing the construction of a new,
automated manufacturing plant. The new plant would slash variable costs per ball by
40%, but it would cause fi xed costs per year to double. If the new plant is built, what
would be the company’s new CM ratio and new break-even point in balls?
6. Refer to the data in (5) above.
a. If the new plant is built, how many balls will have to be sold next year to earn the same
net operating income, $90,000, as last year?
b. Assume the new plant is built and that next year the company manufactures and sells
30,000 balls (the same number as sold last year). Prepare a contribution format income
statement and compute the degree of operating leverage.
c. If you were a member of top management, would you have been in favor of
constructing the new plant? Explain.