Problems: Answer as Indicated
1. On January 15, Year 2, Lawrence and Rigoli, CPAs, are hired to audit the December 31, Year 1, financial statements of KeepWell, Inc., a health care provider. Lawrence and Rigoli have only a limited time in which to complete the audit, due to pre-existing client obligations. There are two staff people available to work on the audit, Roger, a new staff accountant and Lisa, an experienced audit senior. The firm has never audited a company in the health care field.
Which auditing standard, if any, is being violated in the following situations? Select as many options as apply, but no more than three for each situation.
1. Professional care
4. Internal control, entity, and environment
7. No standard violated
A. The firm accepts the engagement despite the fact that it has never audited a company in the health care field.
B. Due to time constraints, there is no opportunity to learn much about the health care field, so a standard audit plan from another industry is used.
C. In the interest of being fair, Rigoli and Lawrence devote an equal amount of time to overseeing the work performed by Roger and the work performed by Lisa.
D. Lisa is currently overseeing two other audit engagements.
E. Lisa audits the more complicated areas, such as pensions and leases, while Roger audits cash and receivables. Each staff member is responsible for setting the scope of the audits in their areas.
F. Roger drafts the initial report, and indicates that accounting principles have been consistently applied, but fails to state that disclosures are adequate.
G. Lisa modifies the report to indicate that disclosures are adequate.
H. Lisa has an excellent track record in the firm, so Rigoli and Lawrence do not review her work.
2. Explain the technique the company is using that may constitute a financial shenanigan. Indicate both the technique used and how the auditor should react.
A. Highlinetime Inc., was about to report lower earnings than expected for 2010. The shortfall would be about $10,000,000. Before year end, the company contracts with Bogus Insurance, Inc., which insures corporate earnings. Under the contract, Highlinetime will receive an insurance payment of $10,000,000 at year end 2010, in exchange for a premium due at the end of 2011 in the amount of $10,000,000. The insurance payment in 2010 will enable Highlinetime, Inc. to meet its earnings expectations.
B. Hamlich, Inc. sold computer equipment to three universities at year end 2010. The universities accepted the equipment and needed to use funds to be obtained from a National Institutes of Health grant. All three universities are awaiting approval of the grants, which is expected in early 2011. Hamlich books the revenues from the sales in 2010 income.
C. Martin’s Corporation has decided that a substantial portion of its plant, property, and equipment are being depreciated over too short a period of time. It revises the depreciation period from 15 years to 25 years.
D. Newco’s bad debt expenses are been cut in half, a material reduction. The company indicates it has tightened up on its credit standards. At the same time, the company’s sales revenues have increased by 10%, which is in line with the previous 5 years.
E. Oldco has had some difficulty moving its inventory in 2010. The company’s accountants have reviewed Oldco’s overhead allocation process and has increased the factory overhead it allocates to inventory (as opposed to period costs).
3. For each situation (1-5), identify the most applicable AICPA rule of conduct and whether there is a violation or no violation of the rule (Please use the following key (e.g., “A”) for your answers: A-F). Do not copy the rule itself into your student answer packet.
A. Rule 101: Independence; no violation
B. Rule 101: Independence; violation
C. Rule 102: Integrity and Objectivity; no violation
D. Rule 102: Integrity and Objectivity; violation
E. Rule 203: Accounting Principles; no violation
F. Rule 203: Accounting Principles; violation
___ 1. Sterling Stevens, CPA, was auditing Global Services Company. Global Services used an accounting principle that was not in conformity with GAAP. Nevertheless, Stevens rendered a standard unqualified audit report.
___ 2. Christina Hall, CPA, provided expert testimony for a plaintiff. The defendant in the case was a client of Hall's.
___ 3. Sam Miller, CPA, owned 100 shares of Johnson Drilling, Inc., his audit client.
___ 4. Dewey Wise, CPA, obtained a loan from an insurance company using the cash value of the insurance policy as collateral. The loan is for less money than the cash value of the policy.
___ 5. Stella Steinbeck, CPA, was auditing Good Services Company. Good Services used an accounting principle that was not in conformity with GAAP. Good Services believed, and Steinbeck concurred, that using a generally accepted method would cause the financial statements to be misleading. Therefore, Steinbeck rendered a standard unqualified audit report.
4. A manager is explaining to a staff auditor how various situations might affect the audit opinion. For each of the following scenarios, identify the appropriate reporting option by double-clicking on a shaded cell and selecting he appropriate option from the list provided. Assume that any financial statement effect is material and that U.S. auditing standards are followed. (Please use the following key (e.g., “A”) for your answers: A-H). Do not copy the rule itself into your student answer packet. Select from the options provided:
A = Standard unqualified opinion
B = Unqualified opinion with explanatory language
C = Qualified opinion
D = Qualified opinion or adverse opinion
E = Qualified opinion or disclaimer of opinion
F = Adverse opinion
G = Adverse opinion or disclaimer of opinion
H = Disclaimer of opinion
1. The scope of the auditor’s examination is affected by conditions that preclude the application of a necessary auditing procedure.
2. The auditor decides to make reference to the report of another auditor as a bsis, in part, for expressing an opinion.
3. The financial statements are affected by an alternative accounting treatment that is a departure from GAAP. The use of GAAP would cause the financial statements to be misleading.
4. The company changed its method of accounting for long-term construction contracts, but management was justified in making the change. The new method is acceptable under GAAP and the change was properly accounted for retrospectively.
5. Doubt about the company’s ability to continue as a going concern is fully disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.
6. The financial statements are subject to an uncertainty that will likely result in a material loss. Management has been unable to estimate the amount of potential loss, but has properly disclosed the details of the situation.
7. The company changed its method of valuing inventory, but management did not have appropriate justification for the change. The change is properly disclosed in the financial statements.
8. A predecessor auditor’s unqualified opinion for a prior year’s report on comparative financial statements is not presented.
9. Required supplementary information is omitted from the financial statements.
10. The auditor wishes to emphasize the acquisition of newly acquired companies.
5. Items 1 through 6 represent an auditor's observed changes in certain financial statement ratios or amounts from the prior year's ratios or amounts. For each observed change, select the most likely explanation or explanations from the list of explanations provided. Answers on the list may be selected once, more than once, or not at all. (Please use the following key (e.g., “A”) for your answers: A-F). Do not copy the rule itself into your student answer packet.
Auditor's observed changes (independent of each other).
A. Inventory turnover increased substantially from the prior year. (Select 3 explanations)
B. Accounts receivable turnover decreased substantially from the prior year. (Select 3 explanations)
C. Allowance for doubtful accounts increased from the prior year, but allowance for doubtful accounts as a percentage of accounts receivable decreased from the prior year. (Select 3 explanations)
D. Long term debt increased from the prior year, but interest expense increased a larger than proportionate amount than long term debt. (Select 1 explanation)
E. Operating income increased from the prior year although the entity was less profitable than in the prior year. (Select 2 explanations)
F. Gross margin percentage was unchanged from the prior year although gross margin increased from the prior year. (Select 1 explanation)
Explanations (Please use these numbers for the explanations for A-F above when responding to this problem):
(1) Items shipped on consignment during the last month of the year were recorded as sales.
(2) A significant number of credit memos for returned merchandise that were issued during the last month of the year were not recorded.
(3) Yearend purchases of inventory were overstated by incorrectly including items received in the first month of the subsequent year.
(4) Yearend purchases of inventory were understated by incorrectly excluding items received before the year-end.
(5) A larger percentage of sales occurred during the last month of the year, as compared to the prior year.
(6) A smaller percentage of sales occurred during the last month of the year, as compared to the prior year.
(7) The same percentage of sales occurred during the last month of the year, as compared to the prior year.
(8) Sales increased at the same percentage as cost of goods sold, as compared to the prior year.
(9) Sales increased at a greater percentage than cost of goods sold increased, as compared to the prior year.
(10) Sales increased at a lower percentage than cost of goods sold increased, as compared to the prior year.
(11) Interest expense decreased, as compared to the prior year.
(12) The effective income tax rate increased, as compared to the prior year.
(13) The effective income tax rate decreased, as compared to the prior year.
(14) Short term borrowing was refinanced on a long-term basis at the same interest rate.
(15) Short term borrowing was refinanced on a long-term basis at lower interest rates.
(16) Short term borrowing was refinanced on a long-term basis at higher interest rates.
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