For water insoluble/lipid soluble hormones, the receptors is present in the ____________ of the cell.
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• For water insoluble/lipid soluble hormones, the receptors is present in the ____________ of the cell. These

hormones form a hormone-receptor complex that activates specific _________ of DNA and activates synthesis of new __________. For water soluble/lipid insoluble hormones, the receptors is present in the ____________ of the cell. These hormones form a hormone-receptor complex that activates production of second messenger called _____________. The enzyme activated to make this messenger is called ____________ _______________. Protein kinases involved in this mechanism of action attcahed phosphates to inactive proteins, a precess called _________________________. • Most body functions are regulated by two or more hormones. When the effect of one hormone is required before the target cell is exposed to another hormone, it is called _______________ interaction. When two or more hormones complement each other to produce a greater response, it is called ________________ interaction. Insulin decreases blood sugar while glucagon increases blood sugar; this type of interaction is referred to as _____________________ interaction. • A sequence of events where the end response regulates the secretion of the hormone is called the _________________ control mechanism. The two types of these mechanisms are _____________ and ______________ _______________ mechanisms. Low blood sugar stimulates the secretion of __________ from hypothalamus, _________ from anterior pituitary, ___________ hormones from thyroid gland and eventually increase blood sugar. This is called the ______________ feedback system. Infant suckling on the breast generates impulses that stimulate release of ______________ from ______________ pituitary and eventually leads to release of milk. This is an example of a ____________ feedback system. • Hypothalamus makes releasing and inhibitory hormones that regulate hormones made by ____________ pituitary gland. These releasing hormones are referred to as the ___________ hormones because they stimulate another endocrine gland to release its hormones. Hypothalamus also has secretory cells that extend into _____________ pituitary gland 

where these hormones are stored and released. • Human growth hormone is made by ___________________ gland and act mostly on __________ and ______________ cells. Hyposecretion of hGH during early childhood years leads to ________________; whereas its hypersecretion causes ________________. Hypersecretion of hGH in an adult causes symptoms similar to diabetes mellitus and it is referred to as ___________________ effect of hGH. • TSH released by anterior pituitary stimulates release of hormones from thyroid gland and therefore it is referred to as a ___________ hormone. • _________ and _________ are hormones that stimulate ovaries and testis to produce their hormones. Together they are called the __________________. • ________________ is the hormone that stimulates making of milk by the mammary gland and ________________ stimulates the release of milk. • ___________ released by pituitary gland stimulates adrenal cortex to release cortisol. • __________ is made by hypothalamus, released by posterior pituitary, and is responsible for reabsorption of water in kidneys. • Hyposecretion of _____________ leads to symptoms similar to diabetes mellitus (large amounts of urine formed, dehydration, thirst) and this condition is referred to as diabetes ___________. • Thyroid gland has two types of cells that make hormones; ________________ cells make thyroid hormones while _______________ cells make calcitonin. ______________ hormone regulates metabolism whereas _______________ regulates blood and bone calcium levels. Hyposecretion of thyroid hormone in infants causes ______________. • ______ from parathyroid gland and ________________ from thyroid gland have opposing effects on blood calcium levels. Such hormones are referred to as ________________ hormones. • Adrenal gland is divided into two regions: adrenal _____________ and adrenal _____________. Adrenal ____________ makes three different types of hormones: _____________________, ______________________, and _______________. Adrenal ____________ makes two types of hormones: ______________________ and _____________________. Hormones from adrenal _________________ are involved in fight or flight response. Hormones from adrenal _________________ are involved in regulating minerals and water. Adrenal hormone that is regulated by ACTH secreted from anterior pituitary is ______________. • Pancreas have groups of cells called the pancreatic ___________ that secrete hormones._______ cells secrete insulin.

_______ cells secrete glucagon. _______ cells secrete somatostatin. Insulin ____________ blood sugar whereas glucagon ____________ blood sugar. Diabetes mellitus is detected by a series of symptoms. Decreased blood glucose is called _____________; increased blood glucose is called ______________; glucose in urine is called _________________; production of large amounts of urine is called _________________. • The main function of ovaries and testis is to produce _____________. However, they are also _____________ glands because they produce hormones. they are regulated by gonadotropins released by _____________ pituitary. • Pineal gland makes ______________ that regulates internal cycle. • Primary function of thymus is maturation of ___ _______________ and the hormone, _____________ helps in this process. • Stomach and small intestine produce hormones to help with ________________ of food. ___________ makes a variety of hormones to support pregnancy. • Kidneys make ________________ to stimulate RBC formation by red bone marrow. 

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