LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS 1. Lymphatic vessels transport fluids that have ______________ from the blood vascular system back to the blood.
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1. Lymphatic vessels transport fluids that have ______________ from the

blood vascular system back to the blood.

2. ___________ and _____________ pressure force fluid out of the blood at the arterial ends of the capillaries and cause most of it to be reabsorbed at the venous ends.

3. As much as _______ of plasma a day becomes part of the interstitial fluid.

4. Lymphatics are a special system of ________________ vessels which absorb excess interstitial fluid and return it to the blood stream.

5. Lymphatic vessels form a ____________ system in which lymph flows ___________ the heart.

6. Lymphatic vessels are very permeable to ____________ which are prevented from entering the blood capillaries.

7. _________________ are highly specialized lymphatic capillaries present in the villi of the intestinal mucosa.

8. In comparison to veins, lymphatics have ___________ walls, ___________ diameter and more valves.

9. The right _____________ duct drains lymph from the right upper arm and right side of the head and thorax.

10. The ________________ duct drains lymph from the lower body and the left side of the head and thorax.

  1. Does the lymphatic system have a pump? ____________
  2. Lymph transport is _____________ and much ___________ than

that in veins.

13. ____________ results when the return of lymph to the blood is impaired.

14. Lymph is filtered by lymph ________ which cluster along lymphatic vessesls.

15. ___________________ in lymph nodes engulf and destroy bacteria and cancer cells.

16. ___________________ in lymph nodes play a role in immune response to pathogenic microorganisms and foreign matter in the lymph.



nodes they




defective ________________ and _____________ from the blood.

22. Additional funtions of the organ in question #20 include storage of ___________ and to serve as a __________________________ site in the embryo.

23. Unlike the lymph nodes, the spleen, thymus gland, tonsils, and Peyer's patches do not ______________ lymph.

24. The ______________ gland functions in helping T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent.

25. The ________________ form a ring of lymphatic tissue around the entrance to the pharynx.

26. The small intestine contains clusters of lymphatic nodules called ____________ ____________.

27. Another name for the pharyngeal tonsils is the ____________________.

28. The tonsils and Peyer's patches are small organs known as ____________________.

Lymph nodes are __________ shaped.

When large numbers of bacteria or viruses are trapped in lymph become __________________ and tender to the touch.

Lymph organs are _____________________ of lymphatic tissue. The largest lymphoid organ is the __________________.

The main function of the organ in question 21 is to remove aged or

29. The lymphatics develop as outpocketings of the developing ____________.

30. The ___________________ gland is the first lymphatic organ to appear.


32. The lymphatic system serves two other systems: the ___________________ system

and the _______________________ system.

33. The lymphatic organs and tissue provide sites from which ____________________ cells called lymphocytes monitor body fluids and mount an attack against specific antigens by releasing antibodies or by direct cellular interactions.


  1. What does the Germ Theory state?
  2. List the types of pathogen that can cause infectious diseases
  3. Why are viruses considered non-living? a.


  1. How are new viruses made?
  2. Name at least 3 specific locations where immune cells collect.
  3. Explain two ways how fevers help to slow down the spread of infection.

a. b.

  1. Explain why specific immunity is more effective than non-specific immunity.
  2. Describe the two ways in which B cells are activated.

a. b.

9. How do vaccines help you build immunity? Describe for both B cells and T cells. Be specific.

10. Identify each system's involvement in the immune response and include specific examples of structures or

how each accomplishes its function. System Function Example(s)

a. Skeletal

b. Integumentary

c. Digestive

d. Respiratory

e. Circulatory

f. Lymphatic





develop? Where located? Function Type of Immunity

11. B Cells

a. plasma cell

b. memory B cell

12. T Cells

a. helper T cell

b. CTL

c. memory T cell

Nonspecific Defenses

13. line defense:

a. block pathogen using

b. block pathogen using

14. line defense:

a. ______________________________: caused by damage to tissue

b. _____________________________: increases phagocytosis & denatures enzymes

c. : protein to bring immune cells to injury site

d. white blood cells

e. ______________________________: eats foreign particles, damaged cells & microbes

f. ____________________________: eats only microbes

g. ____________________________: kills virus-infected cells

15. Specific Defenses: line defense

16. _______________________ immune response: uses B cells

a. Purpose =

b. _____________________ on the B cell binds to the _____________________ of the pathogen.

c. The ______________ divides & differentiates to form _______________ cells in order to mass produce


d. _______________________ are formed for future defense.

17. _______________________ immune response: uses T cells

a. Purpose =

b. ________________ engulfs pathogen, then wears pathogen's ________________ on its surface

c. ___________________ releases cytokines when it binds with the carried by the ___________

d. Cytokines stimulate .

e. _____________________________ kill infected cells.

Immune Disorders

HIV/AIDS causes the immune response to fail because:



A food/pollen allergy is a hypersensitive 3.______________ immune response that is triggered by the release of

4._______________ by 5.____________ cells, resulting in 6.______________ and 7.______________. Plant

allergy occurs when the plant's 8.________________ combines with 9.______________________, causing

10.______________ to kill 11._________________, resulting in 12.__________________, 13.____________,

and 14.________________. 

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