1. A password is required to be 12 to 16 characters in length. Characters can be digits (0-9), upper or
lower-case letters (A-Z, a-z) or special characters. There are 10 permitted special characters. There is an additional rule that not all characters can be letters (i.e. there has to be at least one digit or one special character.) How many permitted passwords are there? Give your answer in un-evaluated/un-simplified form and explain it fully.