badly needed it. TOPIC 1: PRIMARY SOURCE: DECLARATION OF POLICY UNDER RA NO. 3844 OR AGRICULTURAL LAND REFORM I - READINGS / DISCUSSIONS : To...
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Can anyone please help me summarize and explain it for me to understand. badly needed it.TOPIC 1: 

PRIMARY SOURCE: DECLARATION OF POLICY UNDER RA NO. 3844 OR AGRICULTURAL LAND REFORM

I - READINGS / DISCUSSIONS :


To establish owner-cultivatorship and the economic family-size farm as the basis of Philippine agriculture and as a consequence, divert landlord capital in agriculture to industrial development;

2. To achieve a dignified existence for the small farmers free from pernicious institutional restrains and practices

3. To create a truly social and economic structure in agriculture conductive to greater productivity and higher farm incomes;

4. To apply all labor laws equally and without discrimination to both industrial and agricultural wages earners;

5. To provide a more vigorous and systematic land resettlement program and public land distribution;

6. To make the small farmers more independent self-reliant and responsible citizens and a source of genuine strength in our democratic society


TOPIC 2 : PRIMARY SOURCE: PRESIDENTIAL DECREE

 NO.27,21OCTOBER 1972


I - READINGS / DISCUSSIONS :


u The tenant farmer, whether in land classified as landed estate or not shall be deemed

owner of a portion constituting a family size farm of five hectares if not irrigated and 3 hectares if irrigated.

u In all cases, the landowner may retain an area of not more than seven (7) hectares if such

landowner is cultivating such area or will now cultivate it;

u For the purpose of determining the cost of the land to be transferred to the tenant-farmer

pursuant to this Decree, the value of the land shall be equivalent to two and one-half (2) times the average harvest of the three normal crop years immediately preceding the promulgation of this Decree;

u The total cost of the land, including the interest at the rate of six (6) per centum per annum, shall be paid by the tenant in fifteen (15) years of fifteen (15) equal annual amortizations;

u In case of default, the amortizations due shall be paid by the farmers' cooperative in which the defaulting tenant-farmer is a member, with the cooperative having a right of recourse against him; The government shall guaranty such amortizations with shares of stock in government-owned and government-controlled corporations;

u No title to the land owned by the tenant-farmers under this Decree shall be actually issued to a tenant-farmer unless and until the tenant-farmer has become a full-pledge member of a duly recognized farmer's cooperative;

u Title to land acquired pursuant to this Decree or the Land Reform Program of the Government shall not be transferable except by hereditary succession or to the Government in accordance with the provisions of this Decree, the Code of Agrarian Reforms and other existing laws and regulations;

u The Department of Agrarian Reform through its Secretary is hereby empowered to promulgate rules and regulations for the implementation of this Decree.



 "Operation Land Transfer" on lands occupied by tenants of more than seven hectares on rice and corns land commenced, and through legal compulsion and an improved delivery of support services to small farmers, agrarian reform seemed to be finally achievable.


Under the rice self-sufficiency program "Masagana' 99", farmers were able to borrow from banks and purchase three hectares plots of lands and agricultural inputs. However, the landlord class still found ways to circumvent the law. Because only rice lands were the focus of agrarian reform, some landlords only needed to change crops to be exempted from the program, such as coconut and sugar lands.


Lands worked by wage labor were also exempt from the program, so landed elite only had to

evict their tenants and hire workers instead. Landless increased, which made it all more

difficult for the program to succeed because landless peasants were excluded from the program. Many other methods were employed by the elite to find way to maintain their power and dominance, which were worsened by the corruption of Marcos and his cronies who were also involved in the agricultural sector.


TOPIC 3 : POST-WAR 1986 AGRARIAN REFORM


I - READINGS / DISCUSSIONS :

v On July 22, 1987, Aquino issued Presidential Proclamation 131 and Executive Order 229, which outlined her land reform program.

v In 1988, the Congress passed Republic Act No. 6657 or the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL), which introduced the program with the same name (Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program or CARP). It enable the retribution of the agricultural lands to tenant-farmers from landowners, who were paid in exchange by the government through just compensation and allowed them to retain not more than five hectares.

v Corporate landowners were, however allowed under law to voluntary divest a

proportion of their capital stock, equity, or participation in favor of their workers or other qualified beneficiaries instead of turning over their land to the government.

v CARP was limited because it accomplished very little during the administration of Aquino. It only accomplished 22.5% of land distribution in six years owing to the fact that Congress, dominated by landed elite was unwilling to fund the high compensation costs of the program. It will also mired controversy, since Aquino seemingly bowed down to the pressure of her relatives by allowing the stock redistribution option. Hacienda Luisita reorganize itself into a corporation and distributed stock to farmers.

v Under the term of President Ramos, CARP Implementation was speeded in order to meet ten year time frame, despite limitations and constraints in funding, logistics and participation of involved sectors.

v By 1996, the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) distributed only 58.25% of the total area target to be covered by the program.

v To address the lacking funding and dwindling time for the implementation of CARP, Ramos signed Republic Act No. 8532 to amend CARL and extend he program to another ten years.

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