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Lab 7 / Determining Planet Positions OOL 06 OL 08 GEMINI OL 120 EARTH 0 TAURUS 09 OEL IAN DEC CANCER 31 26 10 (12/31/57) 26 OPL MENUS 10 0 220 OV NOV ARIES 150 (12/31/57) 210 20 09 1 LEO 200 MAR MERCURY o 85 061 170 (12/31/57) OCT 180 PISCES - 9 180 21 10 8 - O SUN 170 061 VIRGO 350 APR 160 200 SEP AQUARIUS 340 X 210 140 330 220 130 MAY OLL AUG 20 LIBRA CAPRICORNUS 320 230 19 62 310 240 JUN JUL SCORPIUS SAGITTARIUS 300 250 260 290 270 280 Scale in AUs Figure 1. Positions of Mercury, Venus, and Earth on December 31, 1957. (Adapted from Field Guide to the Stars and Planets by Donald Menzel. Copyright 1964 by Donald Menzel. By permission of Houghton Mifflin Company.) Note: The only items graded on the "wheels" are the arrows denoting the direction of a planet's orbital motion around the Sun (question 1). Other than that, these are worksheets you can draw on to answer questions

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Lab 7 / Determining Planet Positions 6 "Viewing a Planet from Earth [5 parts/each part worth 5 pts/25 pts] Earth rotates on its axis in a counterclockwise direction, when viewed from above the Northern Hemisphere. To see a planet you must be in darkness and on the same side of Earth as the planet is located. Also, a planet that is opposite the Sun from Earth cannot be seen. 18. Use the Stellarium digital planetarium software to > Determine the locations of the planets (i.e., in which constellation) for today's date (or the date specified by your instructor). You need to turn on the constellation names and boundaries in The Sky. Determine each planet's visibility on that same date. [Note: A planet may be visible at "night" but not visible at 11:00 PM.] "Visible at night" means any time between sunset and sunrise High = altitude of 450 E of meridian to 45 W of meridian Low/rising = altitude from eastern horizon (0) to 450 E of meridian. Use this date: March 7, 2007 Low/setting = altitude 45 W of meridian to western horizon (0). Below horizon = planet has not yet risen in the east or has already set in the west > Determine when each planet rises and sets. Note: To get rise/set/culmination (i.e., transit) times in Stellarium do the following. In the vertical task bar, click on Configuration. Click on Plugins. Select Observability Analysis. Check "Load at startup" box. Restart Stellarium. Select a planet (say, Saturn). On horizontal task bar, click on Observability icon (image of a telescope). Rise/set/culmination times are displayed in blue type at the bottom left of your screen. Hint: Find the time the Sun rises and sets on the specified date. Sun rises at AM and sets at PM. (a) Mercury Located in constellation: Visible at night? yes O no Position at 11:00 PM? _ high low/rising O low/setting O below horizon Rises (time): Sets (time): (b) Venus Located in constellation: Visible at night? O yes O no Position at 11:00 PM? O high O low/rising O low/setting O below horizon Rises (time): Sets (time): (c) Mars Located in constellation: Visible at night? O yes O no Position at 11:00 PM? O high O low/rising O low/setting O below horizon Rises (time): Sets (time): (d) Jupiter Located in constellation: Visible at night? _ yes O no Position at 11:00 PM? _ high low/rising low/setting O below horizon Rises (time): Sets (time): (e) Saturn Located in constellation: Visible at night? yes _ no Position at 11:00 PM? _ high low/rising low/setting below horizon Rises (time): Sets (time): Review Having completed this lab, you should know the following: The planets each have different periods of revolution Planets closer to the Sun than Earth change position in the sky frequently during the course of a year. The farthest planets from the Sun change position in the sky only slightly during a year. Planets revolve in the same direction around the Sun. When viewed from Earth, planets appear to be located in constellations. The reason that planets periodically exhibit retrograde motion. How to determine where the planets are located around the Sun for a specific date. How to estimate at what times a planet will rise and set.

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Lab Ti Determining Planet Positions 5 AAd]usting the Planets' Positions on the Orbital Charts [15 answersi22.5 pts] As you have seen, given the same number of days or years, each planet will move a varying amount in its orbit. Therefore, to use the orbital charts (Figures 1, 2, and 3) for any date other than December 31, 1957, requires that the charts be adjusted. The following steps are used to update the locations of the planets on Figures 1, 2, and 3 for any date. Step 1 Accurately determine the total amount of time (in days and in years) that has elapsed between December 31, 195? (the date that the current figures represent) and the date you are seeking. (Note: One year equals 365.25 days.) Step 2 Advance each planet the number of days (for Mercury, Venus, and Mars) or years, including fractions (for Jupiter and Saturn), that have elapsed between December 31, 1957, and the new date. Mark the new position with a dot on the planet's orbit. Label the position with the new date. Step 3 For Earth, locate the date on the orbit that corresponds to the date you are seeking and mark the new position. (The time that has elapsed since the figures were drawn can be disregarded because in any year Earth will be located at the specified date in its orbit.) Step 4 Determine the position of the planet on the 360° reference circle by drawing a line from the Sun through the new position. To determine the constellation in which a planet is located, draw a line from the new position of Earth through the new position of the planet. Using the four steps for adjusting the planets' positions on the charts for any date, complete question 17. 17. Determine the positions of the planets for March 31, 2006. After calculating the number of days and years that have elapsed since the charts were drawn and entering your results below, complete Table 1 by listing the new location of each planet in degrees on the reference circle. Also, determine in which constellation the planet is located when viewed from Earth on the specified date and record your answer in Table 1. (a) Date of new positions of the planets: March 31, [email protected] [Note: You are given this answer.] (b) Number of elapsed years since December 31, 1957 = - years [Round to 2 decimal places] (c) Number of elapsed days since December 31, 1957 = 17,622 day; m: You are given this answer.] Table 1. Planet positions on today's date (or the date specified by your instructor). Use this date: March 31, 2006. Read "I. WWI Sight from Sun Sight from Earth Through Planet Through Planet Planet Elapsed days 1 Period" Leftover x Planet Period" Location In Degrees In the Constellation Mercury orbits days (d) (j) Venus orbits days (e) (k) Earth orbits days (i) (l *" Mars orbits days (g) (m) Jupiter orbits years (b) (n) Saturn orbits years (i) (o) 'Use orbital period of planet obtained from appendix table in textbook. If necessary, convert years to days using 335.25 daystyear. Round to 1 decimal place. For example, Mercury's period is 0.2409 y x 335.25 dr'y = 87.9837 days, which rounds to 88.0 days. For Mercury. Venus, Earth, and Mars. give the number of orbits as a whole number plus a decimal to 2 places. For Jupiter, give the number of orbits as a whole number plus a decimal to 3 places. For Satu m, use 4 decimal places. "The "leftover" will be the decimal portion of the number calculated in column 2. Multiply this decimal times the orbital period to get the number of days or years for column 3. Mark that spot on the planet's wheel and continue. "*To determine the constellation that Earth appears in, one has to look for the constellation that is behind the Earth on the specific date used {part a).

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Lab 7 / Determining Planet Positions Determining in which Constellation a Planet is Located [3 answers/4.5 pts] A planet is often referred to as being "in" a constellation. The reference is to the particular constellation that is located directly behind planet is located. the planet when that planet is viewed from Earth on that same date. The following steps are used to determine in which constellation a Step 1 Position Earth at the appropriate date in its orbit. Step 2 Draw a line beginning at the position of Earth through the position of the planet on the same date. Step 3 Extend the line until it intersects the surrounding reference circle and note the constellation. 6. By following the procedure for determining in which constellation a planet is located determine the constellation in which each of the planets was observed on December 31, 1957. As examples, Mercury and Jupiter have already been done. Planet Constellation (on Dec. 31, 1957) Mercury (Fig. 1) Scorpius Venus (Fig. 1) (a) Mars (Fig.2) ( b ) Jupiter (Fig. 3) Virgo Saturn (Fig. 3) (c ) Relative Movement of the Planets [8 answers/12 pts] The planets that are farthest from the Sun take longer to complete one revolution than those that are nearest to the Sun (Kepler's third are at a greater distance. law). Therefore, given the same number of days, planets that are near the Sun will move further around their orbits than planets that To aid in understanding the effects that different periods of revolution have on the location of planets in the sky, complete questions 7-11 7. On Figures 1 and 3, advance Mercury, Earth, and Jupiter ninety (90) days (0.25 year) beyond the December 31, 1957, position in their orbits. Place a dot in the orbit of each planet at the new position. Use the new position to determine the constellations in which Mercury and Jupiter are located. Constellation (90 days after Dec. 31, 1957) (a) Mercury: (b) Jupiter: 8. Compare the constellation locations of Mercury and Jupiter ninety (90) days after December 31, 1957 (question 6). What effect has ninety days of motion had on where each planet is seen from Earth? [Note: The Earth is moving in its orbit at the same time the planets are moving in their orbits. Each body moves during that 90-day interval.] (a) Effect on Mercury's position as seen from Earth after 90 days: Slight Significant Cannot tell (b) Effect on Jupiter's position as seen from Earth after 90 days: Slight Significant Cannot tell 9. How many revolutions will Mercury complete in one Earth year (365.25 days)? revolutions [Note: Convert fractions to decimals and round to 2 places.] 10. What fraction of a revolution will Jupiter complete in one Earth year? of a revolution Use a decimal (no fractions) to express your answer. Round to 3 decimal places.] 11. Relative to the background of stars, throughout the year the positions of Mercury and Venus change (a) slightly / considerably, while the positions of Jupiter and Saturn change (b) slightly / considerably. [Circle the correct responses.]

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Lab 7 / Determining Planet Positions 2 The zero point on each planet's orbit specifies its position on December 31, 1957. For Mercury, Venus, and Mars (Figs. 1 and 2), the numbers marked on each orbit indicate the planet's position on successive days during its revolution. Since Jupiter and Saturn (Fig. 3) have relatively long periods of revolution, their orbits have been divided into months and select days of the month to simplify its location and allow for direct positioning. The planets, Moon, and Sun lie in nearly the same plane. Therefore, when observed from Earth, they move along the same region of the sky, called the zodiac ("zone of animals"). Indicated on the outer reference circle of each figure are the twelve constellations of the zodiac, which form the background of stars. Each answer is worth 1.5 pts (unless otherwise noted). Revolution of the Planets [12 answers/18 pts] The period of revolution of a planet is directly related to its distance from the Sun. The direction of revolution around the Sun is the same for all planets Examine each of the orbits of the planets shown in Figures 1, 2, and 3. Then answer questions 1-4. 1. On Figures 1, 2, and 3, draw an arrow on EACH planet's orbit showing the direction of revolution of the planet. [ This activity counts as three answers. ] 2. As shown on Figures 1, 2, and 3, the direction of revolution of the planets in the solar system, when viewed from above the Northern Hemisphere of Earth, is clockwise / counterclockwise. (Write answer in blank below.) 3. Using Figures 1, 2, and 3, estimate the periods of revolution of Mercury, Mars, and Saturn. [Round to 1 decimal place.] (a) Mercury: days (b) Mars: days (c) Saturn: years 4. Orbital period data for the planets are as follows: Mercury = 0.2409 year; Venus = 0.6152 year; Mars = 1.881 years; Jupiter = 11.86 years; Saturn = 29.46 years. Fill in the orbital periods of the planets in the blanks below. Some conversions may be necessary. For Mercury, Venus, and Mars, use 1 decimal place; for Jupiter and Saturn, use 2 decimal places. Note: A year is 365.25 days. (a) Mercury: days (c) Mars: days (e) Saturn: years (b) Venus: days (d) Jupiter: years Determining the Location of a Planet Using the Reference Circle [4 answers/6 pts] The reference circle surrounding Figures 1, 2, and 3 is used to locate a planet's position around the Sun. The following steps are used to determine a planet's position on the reference circle. Step 1 Draw a straight line that connects the center of the Sun (the small circle at the center of each figure) with the planet in its orbital position Step 2 Extend the line until it intersects the reference circle and note the degree. 5. By using the procedure for locating a planet's position on the reference circle, accurately determine the degree location of the following planets for December 31, 1957 (the zero location of each planet on the charts). Note that Mercury has already been done. Planet Degree Location (on Dec. 31, 1957) Mercury (Fig. 1) 1250 Venus (Fig. 1) (a) [Round answers a d to 1 decimal place.] Mars (Fig.2) (b) Jupiter (Fig. 3) ( C ) . Saturn (Fig. 3) (d)

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I need help with this lab! It is very confusing! The plotting is very different from what I am used to doing so it doesn't really seem familiar and the calculations are very different as well.

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