1. The phases of the Moon are caused by the Earth's shadow falling...

 1. The phases of the Moon are caused by the Earth's shadow falling on the surface of the Moon. True False

 2. All of the stars in a given constellation are about the same distance away from the Earth. True False

3. According to Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity, nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. True False

4. As the frequency of light increases, the wavelength of light also increases. True False

5. The force of gravity between two objects is attractive and depends only on the mass of the larger object, not of the smaller object. True False 

6. Points An astronomical unit (AU) is the distance between the Earth and the Moon. True False

7. The Cassini Division is an apparent dark gap in Saturn's ring system. True False

8. Over 1,000 Earths would fit inside Jupiter. True False

9. Points Jupiter's moon Io, may have as many as 300 active volcanoes on its surface. True False

10. Points The tidal forces from Jupiter cause flexing in the interior of Europa that generates enough heat to keep subsurface water from freezing. True False

11. In 1675, Rømer measured the speed of light by: A.timing eclipses of Jupiter's satellites, which appeared to occur later when Earth was farther from Jupiter. B.measuring how long it took the light from stars located at di ff erent distances to reach Earth. C. reflecting light from a mirror rotating at a known speed and measuring the angle of deflection of the lightbeam. D.opening a shutter on a lantern on a hilltop and measuring the time taken for light from an assistant's shuttered lantern to return.

12. Why was adaptive optics developed? prevent distortion of mirrors by the vacuum of space. prevent distortion by sagging in very thin, lightweight mirrors. compensate for spherical aberration. compensate for image distortion caused by Earth's atmosphere.

13. On the absolute scale of temperature (in kelvins), the zero of the scale ("absolute zero") corresponds to the: A.freezing point of hydrogen. B.melting point of ice. C.mean temperature of space. D. temperature at which motions of atoms and molecules essentially cease.

14. The main reason for placing astronomical telescopes and detectors on satellites is to: A.avoid dust and haze in Earth's atmosphere. B.avoid light pollution from cities and other built-up areas. C.get closer to the objects being viewed. D.get above the absorption in Earth's atmosphere.

15. If you were to be sent to the Moon, which of your physical properties would be altered noticeably? A.weight B.height C.mass D.volume

16. Retrograde motion of a planet when viewed from Earth is caused by: A.the relative motions of Sun and planet. B.its elliptical orbital path. C.the relative motions of Earth and planet. D.the inclination of its orbit to the ecliptic plane.

17. According to Kepler's second law, an object in an elliptical orbit around the Sun is traveling fastest when it is at what position? A.Because it travels at a constant speed throughout its orbit, there is no such position. B.when it is approaching the Sun, because attraction is greatest over this region. C.aphelion, farthest from the Sun, because it has to move farther per day at that position. D.perihelion, closest point to the Sun.

18. Which planets do not have natural satellites (moons)? A.Jupiter and Uranus B.Uranus and Mars C.Mars and Venus D.Venus and Mercury

19. In general, what are the characteristics of the planets that have been found so far around other stars? A.They are the mass of Saturn or larger, and are therefore Jovian-type planets. B.They are larger than the mass of Jupiter, and are probably a new type of planetary object. C.Between the mass of Mercury and Earth, and are therefore terrestrial-type planets. D.They have masses between the mass of Earth and about 3 times the mass of Jupiter.

20. The correct sequence of planets in our solar system from the Sun outward is: A.Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Saturn, Uranus, Jupiter, Neptune B.Mercury, Earth, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune C.Mercury, Venus, Mars, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune  D.Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

21. Earth's magnetic field is caused by: A.the flow of solar wind particles around and within its outer atmospheric region—the magnetosphere. B.electric currents flowing in the liquid core. C.localized magnetic anomalies near Earth's surface. D.a magnetized solid iron core in the interior.

22. Terrestrial planets are thought to have dense iron cores because: A.the accumulation of material into planets in the original solar system nebula would have begun with the heavier elements, to be followed later by lighter materials. B.magnetism in iron would be su ffi ciently powerful to pull more iron into the center of the forming planet. C.thermonuclear processes produced iron in the earlier phases of planetary formation. earlier molten states the heavy elements sank and lighter materials floated to the surface by chemical di ff erentiation.

23. The polar caps on Mars are most likely made up of: A.water and CO2 ices. B.light-colored dust blown there by intense dust storms and large dust devils. C.volcanic outflow of light-colored lava and dust similar to that produced by Earth-based volcanoes. D.sulfur dioxide and sulfur compounds.

24. The Venusian atmospheric pressure is: A.about 1/10 the Earth's atmospheric pressure. B.about the same as the Earth's atmospheric pressure. C.about 3 times greater than that of Earth's atmospheric pressure. D.about 90 times greater than that of Earth's atmospheric pressure.

25. Where is ice believed to have been discovered on the Moon?  A.No ice has ever been discovered on the Moon, because water cannot exist there in any form. B. in the floors of craters at the north and south poles, which are permanently shaded from the Sun. permafrost under the surface of the lunar highlands. subsurface deposits in maria, from water released by molten lava and trapped under solidified crust.

26. Who was the first person to report seeing the rings of Saturn although he did not realize that they were rings? A.We do not know—the rings have been known since ancient times. B.Galileo Galilei C.Christiaan Huygens D.Johannes Kepler

27. If we succeed in detecting signals from other civilizations in space, what method of communication will prove to be the fastest? A.Neutrinos, because a beam of these particles, suitably modulated, can be made to travel almost infinitely fast because they can penetrate almost anything very easily. B.Nuclear powered rockets, because we can then use unlimited power to accelerate these systems to almost infinite speeds. C.It does not matter what is used because the speed of light can never be exceeded by anything in our universe, thereby setting the communication speed limit. D.Laser light, because this single-wavelength light can be directed into an extremely narrow and intense beam and can therefore be made to travel much faster than ordinary light.

28. How would "Interplanetary Travel" advertise a holiday to Neptune's satellite Triton? A.The largest number of volcanoes for your travel dollar anywhere in the solar system! B.Hot and dry—never rains—beautiful sulfurous skies! C.Skate on frozen nitrogen lakes all morning—bask beside nitrogen geysers in the afternoon! D.Exquisite ethane lakes—hydrocarbons beyond your wildest dreams!

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