Question
Answered step-by-step

Answer the following questions with proper citations & references. I.

Glutathione has a whitening impact on the skin that is seen as a side effect. According to research, glutathione inhibits tyrosinase, which affects skin pigmentation (Dilokthornsakul et al., 2018). The interaction of glutathione with tyrosinase has been hypothesized in many ways (Dilokthornsakul et al., 2018): 

1. it inactivates tyrosinase by chelating the copper ion; 

2. it prevents tyrosinase from reaching the premelanosome; 

3. it scavenges free radicals and peroxide, preventing tyrosinase activation; and 

4. it shifts the skin pigmentation pathways from eumelanin to phaeomelanin.

The various glutathione products for skin whitening are administered topically, orally, and parenterally (Dilokthornsakul et al., 2018). Knowing the mechanism of action of glutathione, we need to assess the efficiency and safety of each route of glutathione administration.

Image transcription text

Table 1. Structure and properties of glutathione Structure Properties Mass: 307.3260 g/mol logP : 0.7240 H-bond acceptors: 9 H-bond donors: 5 -OH HN Rotatable bonds: 11 PSA: 197.6200 OH Refractivity: 70.3674 Atoms: 37 Rings: Heavy atoms: 20 Hydrogen atoms: 17 Heteroatoms: 10 Chiral centers: 2 R/S chiral centers: 2

... Show more

II. Guide Questions

1. What is the bioavailability (high or low) of glutathione when applied topically? Intravenously? Explain briefly why. 

2. Using Table 1 above, predict the oral bioavailability of glutathione. Explain why using the properties you used to assess its oral bioavailability? Hint: you may read this article DOI: 10.1089/cmb.2019.0323 

3. What is the importance of bioavailability to assess the efficiency of glutathione? 

4. How does glutathione enter the cell? 

5. Using your knowledge about the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of glutathione in the different routes, think of a possible scenario that you will not benefit from taking glutathione. (Hint: you may describe these scenarios by the dosage of glutathione used). 

 

please include all the reference/s & citation/s used. THANK YOU :) 

Answer & Explanation
Verified Solved by verified expert
Rated Helpful

ipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tor

gue

usce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec fac

risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue v

Unlock full access to Course Hero

Explore over 16 million step-by-step answers from our library

Subscribe to view answer
Step-by-step explanation

a. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetu

et, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus effi

gue

sum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dap

gue

s a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dap

gue

risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvina

gue

lestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsuac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet.

gue

ci

fficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices a

gue

sus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus,

gue

ur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet.

gue

ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio.

gue

ec fac

a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel

gue

ce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lectus, congue vel laoreet ac, dictum vitae odio. Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor ne

gue

gue

Student reviews
80% (5 ratings)
Thorough explanation
Easy to follow
Clear formatting

"Thank you so much :)"