For problem parts (a) and b, do the following: Draw a picture of the system. 

  • Name an extensive property that can be counted. 
  • Label the system, surroundings, and system boundary. 
  • State the time period of interest. Explain. 
  • Identify the system as open, closed, or isolated and state why. 
  • Identify the system as steady-state or dynamic and state why.
  • Identify whether the system has a reaction and/or energy interconversion and state why.
  • Is the selected extensive property conserved in this system? State why


  1. The liver converts toxins to more innocuous constituents. Arteries and veins transport the blood containing the toxins into and out of the liver. The liver works continuously to detoxify materials, and the conditions of the liver do not change with time. Toxins do not accumulate in the liver. You are interested in writing an accounting equation on the toxins that are transformed in the liver.


Nerve growth factor (NGF) is from the neurotrophin family of proteins that has been shown to have trophic effects on some cholinergic systems of the brain. Since it helps prevent neurons from dying, work has been done to see if NGF is viable as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease or other neurodegenerative disorders. One possible treatment involves fabricating polymers into porous implants loaded with NGF powder and surgically placing them within the brain. Consider a model to track implanted NGF in the brain.

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Part A.pdf