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Diabetes occurs because of a problem with a signal transduction pathway when the body fails to release the hormone insulin so that glucose can enter the cell to fuel metabolic processes. For diabetics experiencing type 1 or type 2 diabetes, either insulin is not released at all, or insulin receptors lose their specificity and when insulin binds to the receptor, the proper message to take glucose into the cell does not occur. Using the illustration as a guide, (c) explain where the problem may reside in the signal transduction pathway of a diabetic patient. (d) Explain how signal transduction pathways may also add in fighting immune responses.

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Introduction Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas in the islets of action in the... View the full answer

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