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QUESTION 1 Where is DNA stored in the eukaryotic cell? nucleus vacuole nucleoid cytoplasm QUESTION 3 What is the central dogma?


Where is DNA stored in the eukaryotic cell?

  1. nucleus
  2. vacuole
  3. nucleoid
  4. cytoplasm


What is the central dogma?

  1. Genes specify the sequences of mRNAs, which in turn specify the sequences of proteins
  2. DNA molecules are composed of one new strand of nucleotides and one old strand of nucleotides
  3. Paired unit factors (i.e., genes) segregate equally into gametes such that offspring have an equal likelihood of inheriting any combination of factors
  4. Genes do not influence each other with regard to sorting of alleles into gametes; every possible combination of alleles is equally likely to occur

2.5 points  


How many characters does a dihybrid cross examine?

  1. One
  2. Two
  3. Three
  4. Four

2.5 points  


How many characters does a monohybrid cross examine?

  1. One
  2. Two
  3. Three
  4. Four


Put the events of DNA replication in the correct order.

The ribosome encounters the stop codon and polypeptide chain is released

mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm

tRNAs bring amino acids, which are added to the growing polypeptide chain

The initiation complex is formed between mRNA, starter tRNA, and the ribosome


  1. Put the events of transcription in the correct order.

The finalized mRNA leaves the nucleus

RNA polymerase moves along the DNA template, adding nucleotides

DNA unwinds and the transcription bubble forms

Introns are removed from the pre-mRNA transcript


Two genes close to each other on the same chromosome that do not undergo independent assortment are an example of _________________.

  1. Recombinant DNA
  2. DNA hyrbidization
  3. Crossing over
  4. Linked genes

Two genes on separate chromosomes with alleles that are independent of each other are an example of _________________.

  1. DNA hyrbidization
  2. Crossing over
  3. Linkage
  4. Independent assortment

2.5 points  


What is a mutation?

  1. A variation in DNA sequence that always has negative consequences
  2. A variation in RNA sequence that affects the production and/or shape of proteins
  3. A variation in RNA sequence that causes malfunctions in the cell cycle
  4. A variation in DNA sequence that affects the production and/or shape of proteins

What is a genotye?

  1. All the proteins found in an individual
  2. The expression of an individual's alleles
  3. The type of alleles that a single individual has
  4. Multiple forms of genes

2.5 points  


What is a phenotype?

  1. All the proteins found in an individual
  2. The type of alleles that a single individual has
  3. Multiple forms of genes
  4. The expression of an individual's alleles

What term describes a gamete with either a missing chromosome or has an extra chromosome?


What term describes a situation where a plant has more than two sets of chromosomes?


What type of RNA forms the two subunits of the structure that reads mRNA and makes proteins?

  1. sRNA
  2. tRNA
  3. mRNA
  4. rRNA

2.5 points  


Which of these choices is found in DNA, but not in RNA?

  1. Cytosine
  2. Ribose sugar
  3. Phosphate group
  4. Deoxyribose sugar

Which of these choices is not true about RNA?

  1. Uracil is found in RNA
  2. Ribose sugars are found in RNA
  3. RNA is single-stranded
  4. RNA is double-stranded

2.5 points  


Which of these conditions is most likely to reduce fertility?

  1. tetraploid plant
  2. triploid plant
  3. diploid plant

Which of these is not true about DNA replication "mistakes."

  1. Mismatch repair enzymes recognize the wrongly incorporated base and remove it
  2. Nucleotide excision repair corrects mistakes caused by ultraviolet light exposure
  3. Most mistakes in DNA replication are not corrected and result in mutations
  4. Most mistakes are corrected during DNA replication

2.5 points  


Which type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome?

  1. tRNA
  2. rRNA
  3. mRNA
  4. sRNA

Which type of RNA that travels to the ribosome after being transcribed in the nucleus?

  1. tRNA
  2. sRNA.
  3. rRNA
  4. mRNA

2.5 points  


What is a genetically modified organism (GMO)?

  1. An organism with certain genes removed 
  2. Any agricultural organism produced by breeding or biotechnology
  3. An organism with an artificially altered genome
  4. An organism whose genome has been altered by selective breeding

2.5 points  


Which of these choices is a transgenic plant?

  1. A tomato plant with genes from a bacterium that make it resistant to beetles
  2. A plant that is selectively bred to have genes for pink leaves
  3. A white pea plant that has been crossbred with a purple pea plant
  4. All of the above

What are nucleosomes?

  1. One phosphate group, deoxyribose sugar, and a base
  2. One phosphate group, a ribose sugar, and a base
  3. Dense regions of DNA that stain darkly
  4. "Beads" formed by DNA wrapped around histonoes

2.5 points  


Why are polyploid plants often popular with gardeners?

  1. Increased fertility and seed production
  2. Large size and vigorous growth
  3. Increased resistance to attacks by insects
  4. Decreased need for pesticides

Strawberries, kiwis, and bananas are often used in biology classes for DNA extraction because they are polyploid. Explain why polyploidy would make these fruits ideal for DNA extraction. 


What is wrong with the statement below? Explain your answer.

Gregor Mendel hybridized true-breeding pea plants over many generations. His experiments with pea plants showed that parental traits blend producing offspring with an appearance that is always an equal blend off each parent's appearance. When Mendel cross-pollinated pea plants with white and violet flowers, he found that 100% of the F1 offspring had violet flowers, which means that the violet flower color is a dominant trait and the white flower color is a recessive trait. When he allowed the plants of the F1 generation to self-pollinate, he found that 100% of the plants of the F2 generation had violet flowers. 

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