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Final Study Guide Blood 1.WHAT ARE THE TWO PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS OF BLOOD?

Final Study Guide

Blood

1.      WHAT ARE THE TWO PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS OF BLOOD? LIST THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF FORMED ELEMENTS AND THEIR PRIMARY FUNCTIONS.

 

 

( Ans).  The two principal components of blood are, red blood and white blood cell

 

 

 

2.      LIST THE STAGES OF AN RBC. WHY DO RBCS DIE? WHAT HAPPENS TO THEIR COMPONENTS WHEN THEY DIE AND DISINTEGRATE?

3.      EXPLAIN THE THREE BASIC MECHANISMS OF HEMOSTASIS.

4.      DESCRIBE THE INTRINSIC, EXTRINSIC, AND COMMON PATHWAYS OF COAGULATION.

Heart

1.      DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC CIRCUITS, AND STATE WHICH PART OF THE HEART SUPPLIES EACH ONE. TRACE THE ROUTE OF THE BLOOD THROUGH THE HEART, NAMING EACH CHAMBER AND VALVE IN ORDER.

2.      EXPLAIN THE MAJOR EVENTS IN EACH STAGE OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE, BEGINNING WHEN ALL CHAMBERS ARE IN DIASTOLE.

3.      WHAT IS REPRESENTED BY THE P, QRS, AND T WAVES OF THE ECG? DRAW A SIMPLE DIAGRAM OF AN ECG TRACE AND LABEL THE WAVES.

4.      WHAT ARE THE TWO WAYS THAT CARDIAC OUTPUT MAY BE INCREASED. LIST SPECIFIC CHEMICALS THAT SPEED UP OR SLOW DOWN THE HEART, AND THAT STRENGTHEN OR WEAKEN ITS CONTRACTIONS. 

Blood Vessels

1.       NAME THE THREE TUNICS OF A TYPICAL BLOOD VESSEL AND EXPLAIN HOW THEY DIFFER FROM EACH OTHER.

2.      HOW DO VISCOSITY, VESSEL LENGTH, AND VESSEL RADIUS INFLUENCE RESISTANCE AND FLOW? WHY IS RADIUS THE MOST IMPORTANT OF THESE?

3.      DESCRIBE THE LOCAL, NEURAL, AND HORMONAL CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW. IDENTIFY THE HORMONES THAT AFFECT BLOOD PRESSURE, AND EXPLAIN HOW THEY WORK. 

4.      EXPLAIN HOW THE SKELETAL MUSCLE PUMP AND THORACIC PUMP CONTRIBUTE TO VENOUS RETURN.

Lymphatic and Immunity

1.           List the primary functions and four major components of the lymphatic system.

2.           Explain how the structure of the larynx prevents choking and enables the production of sound.

3.           Define antigen and explain what role antigens have in immunity.

4.           What are the three phases of cellular and humoral immune responses?

 

Respiratory

1.       Explain pressure changes that occur in the thorax during inspiration and expiration. Why does contraction of the diaphragm cause inspiration but contraction of the abdominal muscles causes expiration?

2.      Name the principal brainstem center that sets the respiratory rhythm, and explain how it does so. Identify several sources of input that the brainstem center receives and uses to modify the respiratory rhythm under special circumstances.

3.      How is most oxygen transported in the blood? What are three ways in which blood transports CO2? Which one is most significant? 

4.      Give three reasons why highly active tissues extract more oxygen from the blood than less active tissues. Explain how changes in pulmonary ventilation can correct pH imbalances.

Digestive

1.           Name the independent network of neurons in the digestive tract and identify its functions. Explain the three stages of swallowing. Which is voluntary and which are involuntary?

2.           Compare and contrast the three phases of gastric regulation. State whether gastric secretion and motility increase or decrease in each phase. Summarize the roles of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous stimulation over the course of these three phases. 

3.           What does the liver contribute to digestion? List three enzymes secreted by the pancreas and state the function of each.

4.           Distinguish between segmentation and peristalsis of the small intestine. How do these differ in function? Define microbiota, and discuss advantages and disadvantages of the abundant bacteria found in the large intestine.

 

Metabolism

1.            What conditions promote glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, and gluconeogenesis?

2.           List at least six nondigestive functions of the liver.

3.           Define absorptive state and postabsorptive state. In which state is the body storing excess fuel? In which state is it drawing from these stored fuel reserves?

4.           How does the effect of ghrelin differ from the effects of peptide YY and cholecystokinin? Where is each of these hormones secreted?

 

Urinary System

1.       Describe the four functions of the kidneys other than forming urine. 

2.      Trace a path taken by one red blood cell from the renal artery, through the renal cortex, to the renal vein. Trace a drop of urine on its route from the glomerular capsule to the point where it leaves the body. 

3.      Name and describe the four stages in which blood plasma is converted to urine. List five substances that are reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule. Which of these does the most to drive reabsorption of the others? Explain how it does that. 

4.      Compare and contrast the functions and neural control of the internal and external urethral sphincters.

Fluid, Electrolytes, Acid/Base Balance

1.            What is the most important mechanism for regulating fluid intake? What hormone is most important in regulating fluid output?

2.           What are the terms for excessively high and low pH? State some causes and effects of each.

3.           Describe how chemical buffers, the respiratory system, and the kidneys resist or compensate for shifts in body fluid pH.

 

Reproductive System

  1.  Define gonad in a way that includes the word gamete(s). Distinguish between a gamete and a zygote. Distinguish between internal and external genitalia.
  2. Describe the pathway taken by the sperm from the time they leave the testis until they are ejaculated. What point in this pathway is the main storage place for sperm awaiting ejaculation?
  3. What structure in the ovary serves the same purpose as seminiferous tubules in the testis? In what ways does it differ from a seminiferous tubule?
  4. Spermatogenesis produces four functional gametes per spermatogonium, and oogenesis produces only one gamete per oogonium. Why?

5.      What are the roles of oxytocin, prostaglandins, and uterine stretching in childbirth?

Development

1.      Describe two ways a fertilized egg prevents the entry of excess sperm. In the blastocyst, what are the cells called that eventually give rise to the embryo? 

2.      What are the cells that carry out implantation? How is trophoblastic nutrition different from placental nutrition?

3.      State the functions of the placenta, amnion, chorion, yolk sac, and allantois. 

4.      Identify the three circulatory shunts of the fetus. Why does the blood take these "shortcuts" before birth?

Endocrine

1.      Compare and contrast how the nervous system and endocrine system coordinate human physiology, and describe some ways in which these two systems overlap and interact.

2.      How does the hypothalamus control the anterior pituitary gland? How does it control the posterior pituitary gland?

3.      List the posterior pituitary gland hormones and explain their functions. 

4.      List the following hormones secreted from the following gland, the target tissues, and the actions of the hormones: Pineal; Thyroid; Parathyroid; Thymus; Pancreas; Adrenal; Gonads

5.      Name one hormone produced by each of the following organs - the heart, kidney, stomach, and ovary - and state the function of each hormone. 

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