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Scientific Explanation Assignment - Scenario Weight: 3% of your final Biology 140 grade Word count: typed, size 12 font, max. one page double-sided, double-spaced Due date: By the start of your Lab 4, either by email or give to your instructor Sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus spp.) are round, spiny marine animals that are closely related to sea stars. They use their spines and tube feet to move about on rocky shorelines along the Pacific Coast. They typically move about at night, feeding on macroalgae, especially large brown kelp (e.g. bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana), and giant kelp (Macrocystis spp.)). When abiotic and biotic conditions are unfavourable, sea urchins hide in crevices or depressions in rocks. Here they are protected from strong water movement (e.g. currents and waves), which can dislodge the urchins, and from predators, such as sea stars, sea otters and fish. They are also protected from moving debris that can damage their spines. While in the refuge site (crevice or depression), sea urchins have limited access to food and must rely on bits of unattached macroalgae that drift by their location. If the density of sea urchins in the refuge site is high, competition for this drifting macroalgae can be intense and the sea urchins must leave their refuge to find food. Table 1. The impact of abiotic conditions on sea urchins. Abiotic conditions Impact of conditions Current speed >5 m/s - 50% chance of dislodgement Wave velocity >0.25 m/s - debris in the water can damage the spines of urchins Table 2. The abiotic and biotic conditions at two intertidal sites. Conditions Intertidal Site 1 Intertidal Site 2 Current speed 0.3 - 1.7 m/s 1.0 -7.3 m/s Wave velocity 0.0 - 0.15 m/sec 0.0 - 0.35 m/sec Light Intensity <1-95,000 lux <1 - 80,000 lux Density of sea stars 2.4 individuals/m2 2.1 individuals/m2 Density of urchins 35 individuals/m2 10 individuals/m2 Based only on the information provided above, answer the question: At which intertidal site would you expect sea urchins to spend more time hiding in refuges?

Student name: Lab section: Scientific explanation assignment Present your answer in the format of a scientific explanation in the boxes below. Type and use full sentences. Attach the marking rubric to the front of your assignment. Either use the pages from your workbook or download the pages from Canvas. Claim Evidence and reasoning/integration (max. one page double-sided, double-spaced)

Subject: Biology, Science
3% of your final Biology 140 grade Word count: typed, size 12 font, max. one page double-sided, double-spaced Due date: By the start of your Lab 4,...
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