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# Blow Up a Balloon with Blow Up a Balloon with Cellular

Respiration Lab

Question: How does sugar effect the carbon dioxide production in yeast?

Introduction: Yeasts are unicellular microorganisms of the fungi kingdom. They are facultative anaerobe, which means that they can respire or ferment depending upon environmental conditions. In the presence of oxygen, respiration takes place (aerobic respiration). Without oxygen present, fermentation occurs (anaerobic respiration). Both processes require sugar to produce cellular energy. Here is the chemical reaction of fermentation, which produces ethanol and carbon dioxide as metabolic waste products.

Objective: In this lab, you will use the respiration powers of yeast to blow up balloons. This activity will reinforce the basic principles of respiration as a fundamental metabolic process for living organisms using yeast as a model.

Materials:

§ 6 Balloons (pre-stretch them & size will matter, so add more ingredients for bigger balloons, just adjust your procedure & data table accordingly)

§ Funnel

§ Warm water

§ Table sugar

§ 3 cups

§ 1 ½ tablespoons active dry yeast

§ Ruler

§ Stop watch

Hypothesis (read through the procedure and predict which solution would blow the balloon up faster & state why):

Procedure:

1.    First Solution: In the first cup add ½ teaspoon of yeast and 40ml of warm water. Mix thoroughly with stir stick (»30seconds) - you will split this solution into two separate balloons.

2.    Second Solution: In the second cup add ½ teaspoon of yeast, 1 teaspoon of sugar and 40ml of warm water. Mix thoroughly! - you will split this solution into two separate balloons.

3.    Third Solution: In the third cup add ½ teaspoon of yeast, 2 teaspoons of sugar and 40 ml of water. Mix thoroughly! - you will split this solution into two separate balloons.

1. Label each balloon as 'no sugar' (2 balloons), '1 tsp sugar' (2 balloons) and '2 tsp sugar' (2 balloons).
2. You will split each solution in ½ (so 20mls in each balloon)
3. For the first labeled balloon, place the bottom of a funnel into the opening and add ½ of the first solution. You may need to stretch the opening of the balloon a little bit so that it fits.
4. Pour the solution into the balloon through the funnel.
5. Remove the funnel from the opening of the balloon. Tie a knot in the balloon to keep the solution inside. Measure the diameter of your balloon.
6. Repeat this so that each balloon contains it's appropriate solution.
7. Place the balloons in a warm place and wait. Measure your balloons every 2 minutes and record the information in a data table.

WHILE YOU WAIT, READ AND ANWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Did you ever wonder how bread gets its "spongy" structure? If you've ever baked homemade bread yourself, you know that you need yeast to make the bread dough rise. Yeasts are single-celled fungi. Like the cells in your body, they can get energy from sugar molecules. They can also break down larger carbohydrate molecules (like starches present in flour) into simple sugar molecules, which are then processed further.

This process is called cellular respiration. Cellular respiration uses oxygen to breakdown carbohydrates (sugar) into carbon dioxide and water with capture of some of the energy in the form of ATP. This all takes place in the mitochondria.

1. Write down the equation for cellular respiration

+                                                                                                            +

2. Why do living organisms carry out the process of respiration?

____________                                                 ______________________________________________________________

____________________________                                                             _____________________________________________

3. What waste product of yeast respiration is useful in making bread? _________                                                                                                              ______

Explain how yeast helps the bread dough to rise. ______________________                                                                                                   ________

________________________________________________________________                                           ________

Yeast can take out more energy from sugar when oxygen is present in their environment. In the absence of oxygen, yeast switch to an alternative pathway that does not require oxygen. This process is called fermentation. With fermentation, yeast can still get energy from sugar, but less energy is made from each sugar molecule. This process allows the yeast to survive and grow where no oxygen is available.

Fermentation partially breaks down the sugar and a small amount of energy is captured in the form of ATP, and a different product is formed. During fermentation in yeast, the products are carbon dioxide and alcohol. Alcoholic fermentation in yeast can be used to make wine or beer.

Fermentation Equation:

C6H12O6                                                2(CH3CH2OH)  +  2CO2  +  energy

(alcohol)

4. What waste product of yeast respiration is useful in making beer/wine? _____________

We can respire in both ways too. Normally we use oxygen, but when we are running in a race, we may not get enough oxygen into our blood, so our muscles start to respire without oxygen. Unlike yeast we produce lactic acid, this causes the 'burning' sensation and cramping in the muscles.

To measure the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast, you can measure the amount of CO2 gas the yeast produces. CO2 production can be measured by measuring the depth of the layer of bubbles trapped in foam on top of the yeast solution.

Data Table:

Time

(minutes)

Diameter in cm of the balloons

No Sugar

1 tsp Sugar

2 tsp Sugar

Balloon 1

Balloon 2

Balloon 1

Balloon 2

Balloon 1

Balloon 2

2

4

6

8

10

12

Graph:

Prepare a graph to summarize the data you recorded in the your data table.

·        Label the Y-axis diameter

·        Label the X-axis time (min)

·        Mark an appropriate scale

·        Average the diameter for each solution (average of 2 balloons)

·        Plot the data for average diameter of each solution.

The Effect of sugar on Respiration in Yeast

Conclusion Questions:

1. Was your hypothesis correct? Explain why or why not using data from the experiment.

1. Which set up was the control group?

1. What is the independent variable (what was changed) in this experiment?

1. What is the dependent variable (what was measured) in this experiment?

1. Explain how the experiment may have produced data that was incorrect (sources of error).

1. What experiment would you test in the future that relates to the ideas in this lab?

Cellular Respiration Lab

Question: How does sugar effect the carbon dioxide production in yeast?

Introduction: Yeasts are unicellular microorganisms of the fungi kingdom. They are facultative anaerobe, which means that they can respire or ferment depending upon environmental conditions. In the presence of oxygen, respiration takes place (aerobic respiration). Without oxygen present, fermentation occurs (anaerobic respiration). Both processes require sugar to produce cellular energy. Here is the chemical reaction of fermentation, which produces ethanol and carbon dioxide as metabolic waste products.

Objective: In this lab, you will use the respiration powers of yeast to blow up balloons. This activity will reinforce the basic principles of respiration as a fundamental metabolic process for living organisms using yeast as a model.

Materials:

§ 6 Balloons (pre-stretch them & size will matter, so add more ingredients for bigger balloons, just adjust your procedure & data table accordingly)

§ Funnel

§ Warm water

§ Table sugar

§ 3 cups

§ 1 ½ tablespoons active dry yeast

§ Ruler

§ Stop watch

Hypothesis (read through the procedure and predict which solution would blow the balloon up faster & state why):

Procedure:

1.    First Solution: In the first cup add ½ teaspoon of yeast and 40ml of warm water. Mix thoroughly with stir stick (»30seconds) - you will split this solution into two separate balloons.

2.    Second Solution: In the second cup add ½ teaspoon of yeast, 1 teaspoon of sugar and 40ml of warm water. Mix thoroughly! - you will split this solution into two separate balloons.

3.    Third Solution: In the third cup add ½ teaspoon of yeast, 2 teaspoons of sugar and 40 ml of water. Mix thoroughly! - you will split this solution into two separate balloons.

1. Label each balloon as 'no sugar' (2 balloons), '1 tsp sugar' (2 balloons) and '2 tsp sugar' (2 balloons).
2. You will split each solution in ½ (so 20mls in each balloon)
3. For the first labeled balloon, place the bottom of a funnel into the opening and add ½ of the first solution. You may need to stretch the opening of the balloon a little bit so that it fits.
4. Pour the solution into the balloon through the funnel.
5. Remove the funnel from the opening of the balloon. Tie a knot in the balloon to keep the solution inside. Measure the diameter of your balloon.
6. Repeat this so that each balloon contains it's appropriate solution.
7. Place the balloons in a warm place and wait. Measure your balloons every 2 minutes and record the information in a data table.

WHILE YOU WAIT, READ AND ANWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

Did you ever wonder how bread gets its "spongy" structure? If you've ever baked homemade bread yourself, you know that you need yeast to make the bread dough rise. Yeasts are single-celled fungi. Like the cells in your body, they can get energy from sugar molecules. They can also break down larger carbohydrate molecules (like starches present in flour) into simple sugar molecules, which are then processed further.

This process is called cellular respiration. Cellular respiration uses oxygen to breakdown carbohydrates (sugar) into carbon dioxide and water with capture of some of the energy in the form of ATP. This all takes place in the mitochondria.

1. Write down the equation for cellular respiration

+                                                                                                            +

2. Why do living organisms carry out the process of respiration?

____________                                                 ______________________________________________________________

____________________________                                                             _____________________________________________

3. What waste product of yeast respiration is useful in making bread? _________                                                                                                              ______

Explain how yeast helps the bread dough to rise. ______________________                                                                                                   ________

________________________________________________________________                                           ________

Yeast can take out more energy from sugar when oxygen is present in their environment. In the absence of oxygen, yeast switch to an alternative pathway that does not require oxygen. This process is called fermentation. With fermentation, yeast can still get energy from sugar, but less energy is made from each sugar molecule. This process allows the yeast to survive and grow where no oxygen is available.

Fermentation partially breaks down the sugar and a small amount of energy is captured in the form of ATP, and a different product is formed. During fermentation in yeast, the products are carbon dioxide and alcohol. Alcoholic fermentation in yeast can be used to make wine or beer.

Fermentation Equation:

C6H12O6                                                2(CH3CH2OH)  +  2CO2  +  energy

(alcohol)

4. What waste product of yeast respiration is useful in making beer/wine? _____________

We can respire in both ways too. Normally we use oxygen, but when we are running in a race, we may not get enough oxygen into our blood, so our muscles start to respire without oxygen. Unlike yeast we produce lactic acid, this causes the 'burning' sensation and cramping in the muscles.

To measure the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast, you can measure the amount of CO2 gas the yeast produces. CO2 production can be measured by measuring the depth of the layer of bubbles trapped in foam on top of the yeast solution.

Data Table:

Time

(minutes)

Diameter in cm of the balloons

No Sugar

1 tsp Sugar

2 tsp Sugar

Balloon 1

Balloon 2

Balloon 1

Balloon 2

Balloon 1

Balloon 2

2

4

6

8

10

12

Graph:

Prepare a graph to summarize the data you recorded in the your data table.

·        Label the Y-axis diameter

·        Label the X-axis time (min)

·        Mark an appropriate scale

·        Average the diameter for each solution (average of 2 balloons)

·        Plot the data for average diameter of each solution.

The Effect of sugar on Respiration in Yeast

Conclusion Questions:

1. Was your hypothesis correct? Explain why or why not using data from the experiment.

1. Which set up was the control group?

1. What is the independent variable (what was changed) in this experiment?

1. What is the dependent variable (what was measured) in this experiment?

1. Explain how the experiment may have produced data that was incorrect (sources of error).

1. What experiment would you test in the future that relates to the ideas in this lab?

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