Use the phylogeny below to answer questions 19- 21 on the following page. The peafowl researchers wanted to look closely at species in the clade with...
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As described in the pictures, I don't quite understand Q20 and Q21

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Use the phylogeny below to answer questions 19- 21 on the following page.
The peafowl researchers wanted to look closely at species in the clade with
eyespots. The tree below shows taxa with eyespots marked with an +, those
that lack eyespots have no markings. We are going to explore different
possible evolutionary pathways.
P. chalcurum
P. bicalcaratum +
P. inopinatum +
P. katsumatae +
P. germaini +
P. malacense +
P. schleiermacheri +
P. napleonis +
G. spadiceus
G. lunulata
H. sanguiniceps
P. muticus +
P. cristatus +
A. congensis
R. ocellata
A. argus +

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20. If the ancestor of the peafowl clade did not have eyespots, and the common
ancestor of P. chalcurum and P. napoleonis evolved eyespots independently (one
gain), what is the total number of steps needed for the tree to accurately explain
eyespot evolution?
a) One gain and three losses
b) One gain and five losses
c) Two gains and three losses
d) Two gains and five losses
e) Three gains and one loss
21. Analyze the evolution of eyespots on the peafowl phylogeny. What is the most
parsimonious total number of steps needed for the tree to accurately explain
eyespot evolution assuming that eyespots were not present in the ancestor of the
peafowl clade?
a) One gain and three losses
b) One gain and five losses
c) Two gains and three losses
d) Two gains and five losses
e) Three gains and one loss

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