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<pre class="ql-syntax">Please answer questions 4,6,7 and 8 in this assignment. Thank You! 4. Name

the two types of prostheses commonly used and briefly <span class="hljs-keyword">describe</span> how <span class="hljs-keyword">each</span> works. <span class="hljs-number">6.</span> What <span class="hljs-keyword">are</span> the shortcomings <span class="hljs-keyword">of</span> tapping directly <span class="hljs-keyword">into</span> the brain <span class="hljs-keyword">or</span> existing nerve endings <span class="hljs-keyword">in</span> the amputated area <span class="hljs-keyword">to</span> <span class="hljs-keyword">create</span> signals <span class="hljs-keyword">to</span> control a prosthetic device? <span class="hljs-number">7.</span>Briefly <span class="hljs-keyword">describe</span> how targeted reinnervation works. What <span class="hljs-keyword">is</span> the advantage <span class="hljs-keyword">of</span> this technique <span class="hljs-keyword">for</span> control <span class="hljs-keyword">of</span> a prosthetic compared <span class="hljs-keyword">to</span> that used <span class="hljs-keyword">to</span> control conventional prostethics? <span class="hljs-number">8.</span> What <span class="hljs-keyword">is</span> the proposed direction <span class="hljs-keyword">of</span> research <span class="hljs-keyword">for</span> receiving better signals <span class="hljs-keyword">and</span> more sensation feedback <span class="hljs-keyword">in</span> prosthetics? </pre>

BIOL1011 Assignment 3_F2019 (3).docx

BIOLO1011 – Introductory Cell and Molecular Biology
Fall 2019 Assignment 3
Understanding Cervical Cancer
Name: Haris Ahad Student ID: 100523341 There are two readings you must complete to be able to answer the questions in this
assignment. Once you have completed the readings, please submit this assignment
following the instructions posted on Blackboard. This assignment is due on November
8, by 7:00 p.m. Please make sure to use your own words to complete the assignment.
Your assignment must be saved as an MS word document or PDF or it will not be
marked.
Reading 1: Case 2 – Cancer: Cell Signaling, Form and Division on pages 180 -183 and
219-220 (Case 2 - How do cancer cells spread throughout the body?) of your textbook
(Morris et al., 2019, Biology How Life Works. 3rd edition. W.H. Freeman and Company.
New York NY)
Reading 2: Choi, C. Q. (2009, January). A Theory of a Deadly Fusion. Scientific
American, 100 – 103. (posted on Blackboard)
Answer the following questions based on the readings.
1. What is the cause of the majority of cervical cancers? (1 mark)
A virus called human papillomavirus
2. Using your own diagram or flow chart, outline how the high-risk strains of HPV
virus work to infect cells and cause cervical cancer. (5 marks)
HPV enters an epithelial cell -&gt; HPV takes control of the cellular machinery
within the epithelial cells to produce more virus -&gt; Since they are not
fought-off by the immune system, they permanently integrate their DNA
into the host DNA -&gt; E6 and E7(viral genes) increase their activity and
produce proteins that hinders tumor suppressors which in turn allow
increase cell division of the HPV virus -&gt; As they increase in numbers they
penetrate the basal lumina -&gt; They then spread to other organs 1|Page BIOLO1011 – Introductory Cell and Molecular Biology
Fall 2019 3. If only females can develop cervical cancer, why is it recommended that boys be
vaccinated as well as girls? (1 mark)
Because the vaccines prevent HPV, which males can still get. Cervical cancer is
just a strain of cancer you can get after getting HPV.
4. Do some research on the rates of infection of HPV in women in Canada and
report them below (please include your source). How does the information you
found compare with that in Case 2 of your textbook? (3 marks)
In 2010, about 27% women were infect by HPV.
In 2012, about 0.00008% women were infected by HPV
There is a huge decrease in the defection rate of HPV virus. This women
are using safe practices during sexual interactions and are also willing to
take the HPV vaccine. Source used: http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/cervical/statistics / https://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/facts_for_features_sp
ecial_editions/cb12-ff05.html 5. What is the link between white blood cells and cancer growth? (1 mark) 2|Page BIOLO1011 – Introductory Cell and Molecular Biology
Fall 2019 6. What are some hypotheses about how cancer cells spread? (5 marks) 7. Is there evidence that contradicts the fusion hypothesis? Explain briefly. (2
marks) 8. If the fusion hypothesis is correct, what types of cancer therapy could be used to
fight cancer? (2 marks) 3|Page /20

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