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• Define the terms: matter, element and compound and explain why some

elements are critical to life. • Draw and label a simplified model of an atom. • Distinguish between each of the following sets of terms and be able to define and explain each of the terms: • neutron/proton/electron • atomic number/atomic mass/mass number • element/compound • covalent bond/ionic bond • isotope/ion • Explain how the atomic number and mass number of an atom can be used to determine the number of neutrons • Be able to find information on a periodic table. • Explain how two isotopes of an element are similar. Explain how they are different. • Be able to determine how many electrons are in the outer shell of a given atom and how all of the electrons are distributed . • Describe the weak chemical bonds • Explain how a chemical reaction takes place. What are reactants? Products? • With the use of a diagram or diagrams, explain why water molecules are: a. polar b. capable of hydrogen bonding with 4 neighboring water molecules • Distinguish among a solute, a solvent, and a solution. • Define cohesion, adhesion and surface tension and understand how these terms can be related to water properties • Distinguish between hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances. If I describe a substance chemically, you should be able to decide whether it is hydrophobic or hydrophilic. • What ions result when water dissociates? • What is the pH scale based on? What are acids and bases? Know that the pH units mean powers of ten. If pH changes by two units, what's the difference in protons? • What's a buffer? Why are they important for organisms?

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