Solved by Expert Tutors
How is it theorized viroids replicate?
Solved by Expert Tutors
Question

How is it theorized viroids replicate? Select one or more: a. They utilize the lytic cycle

b. It is thought their DNA is capable of catalyzing excision from DNA (destruction of chromosomal material)

c. They utilize the lysogenic cycle

d. It is thought their RNA is capable of catalyzing excision from DNA (destruction of chromosomal material)

e. None of the above

The first evidence of a different kind of organism (other than bacteria) was dated to be two-three billion years old and a type of protist. Which statement describes one of its characteristics?

Select one or more:

a. Larger than bacteria and contains chlorophyll (unlike bacteria)

b. Larger than bacteria and contains complex internal membranes (unlike bacteria)

c. Larger than bacteria and contain ribosomes (unlike bacteria)

d. Smaller than bacteria and contains DNA (unlike bacteria)

e. Smaller than bacteria and contains mitochondria (unlike bacteria)

The first eukaryotic organism was probably similar to Pelomyxa palustris. Which statement describes one of its characteristics?

Select one or more:

a. Larger than bacteria and contains chlorophyll (unlike bacteria)

b. Larger than bacteria and contains complex internal membranes (unlike bacteria)

c. Larger than bacteria and contain ribosomes (unlike bacteria)

d. Smaller than bacteria and contains DNA (unlike bacteria)

e. Smaller than bacteria and contains mitochondria (unlike bacteria)

During the billion and a half years in which mitochondria have existed as endosymbionts within eukaryotic cells, most of their genes have been transferred to the chromosomes of the host cells (but not all). What does this mean (i.e. how is the mitochondria controlled)?

Select one or more:

a. Most of their genes have been transferred to the ribosomes of the cell

b. Most of their genes have been transferred to the cytoskeleton of the cell

c. Most of their genes have been transferred to the chromosomes of the cell

d. Most of their genes have been transferred to the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell

e. Most of their genes have been transferred to the Golgi apparatus of the cell

Which statement describes a type of asexual reproduction used by certain protists?

Select one or more:

a. Gametic reproduction

b. Meiosis

c. Schizogony

d. Syngamy

e. All of the above

Can some protists utilize sexual reproduction and, if so, when would they most likely use this method?

Select one or more:

a. When male and female organisms of the same species find each other

b. Once a protist is engulfed by a predator (to be able to lyse out of the cell)

c. When wind disperses pheromones to trigger a reproduction event

d. During times of stress such as food shortages

e. All of the above

Which statement describes the protists found within the Supergroup Excavata?

Select one or more:

a. Only grouped together due to DNA similarities and they basically have nothing else in common other than silicon exoskeletons and limestone shells

b. Named after a groove on one side of the cell body in some form

c. Are red and green algae exclusively

d. Are the closest living relatives to animals and fungi since this group includes choanoflagellates

e. Is the largest photosynthetic group

Which statement describes the protists found within the Supergroup Rhizaria?

Select one or more:

a. Only grouped together due to DNA similarities and they basically have nothing else in common other than silicon exoskeletons and limestone shells

b. Named after a groove on one side of the cell body in some form

c. Are red and green algae exclusively

d. Are the closest living relatives to animals and fungi since this group includes choanoflagellates

e. Is the largest photosynthetic group

Which statement describes the protists found within the Supergroup Archaeplastida?

Select one or more:

a. Only grouped together due to DNA similarities and they basically have nothing else in common other than silicon exoskeletons and limestone shells

b. Named after a groove on one side of the cell body in some form

c. Are red and green algae exclusively

d. Are the closest living relatives to animals and fungi since this group includes choanoflagellates

e. Is the largest nonphotosynthetic group

Which statement describes the free-living protists found within the Division (or Phylum) Euglenozoa?

Select one or more:

a. Have undulating membranes that assist in locomotion, have flagella, and lack classic mitochondria

b. Have a pellicle and use chlorophyll a/b

c. Are unicellular, move with cilia, and have two nuclei

d. Have two types of DNA which leads to rapid glycolysis within the organism

e. Have a unique arrangement of fibrils, microtubules, vacuoles, and other cell organelles

Which statement describes the protists found within the Class Kinetoplastida?

Select one or more:

a. Have undulating membranes that assist in locomotion, have flagella, and lack mitochondria

b. Have a pellicle and use chlorophyll a/b

c. Are unicellular, move with cilia, and have two nuclei

d. Have two types of DNA (mini-circles and maxi-circles) which leads to rapid glycolysis within the organism

e. Have a unique arrangement of fibrils, microtubules, vacuoles, and other cell organelles

Which statement describes the characteristics of the protists found within Phylum Cercozoa?

Select one or more:

a. Have pore-studded shells (called tests) and thin cytoplasmic projections called podia emerge through openings in the tests for swimming and feeding

b. Are only put together as a Phylum due to genetics (they have almost nothing else in common physically)

c. Produces the unique carbohydrate chrysolmaninarin

d. When food or moisture is in short supply, these organisms move and then become a mound and produce sporangium

e. All use the pigment fucoxanthin and chlorophyll a/c to obtain a brown coloration

Which statement describes the characteristics of the protists which are considered plasmodial slime molds?

Select one or more:

a. Are the sister phylum to all land plants and use chlorophyll a/b

b. Stream along as plasmodium (a non-walled, multinucleate mass of cytoplasm that resembles a moving mass of slime)

c. Contains only green algae which can be unicellular, multicellular, or filamentous membranes (like sea lettuce)

d. Have a single emergent flagellum surrounded by a funnel-shaped, contractile collar composed of closely place filaments (similar to sponges)

e. Single cells combine and the individual organisms behave as separate amoebas as they move through the soil and ingest bacteria

Which statement describes the characteristics of the protists which are considered cellular slime molds?

Select one or more:

a. Are the sister phylum to all land plants and use chlorophyll a/b

b. Stream along as plasmodium (a non-walled, multinucleate mass of cytoplasm that resembles a moving mass of slime)

c. Contains only green algae which can be unicellular, multicellular, or filamentous membranes (like sea lettuce)

d. Have a single emergent flagellum surrounded by a funnel-shaped, contractile collar composed of closely place filaments (similar to sponges)

e. Single cells combine and the individual organisms behave as separate amoebas as they move through the soil and ingest bacteria

Regarding how fungi reproduce, what is the difference between a heterokaryotic and homokaryotic hyphae?

Select one or more:

a. Heterokaryotic hyphae contain dikaryotic nuclei and homokaryotic hyphae contain monokaryotic nuclei

b. Homokaryotic hyphae contain dikaryotic nuclei and heterokaryotic hyphae contain monokaryotic nuclei

c. Heterokaryotic hyphae contain genetically different nuclei and homokaryotic hyphae contain genetically similar nuclei

d. Homokaryotic hyphae contain genetically different nuclei and heterokaryotic hyphae contain genetically similar nuclei

e. Heterokaryotic hyphae sexually reproduce and homokaryotic hyphae asexually reproduce

Fungi are capable of producing both sexual and asexual spores. How are they (a) spread in the environment or (b) grow once they reach the ground?

Select one or more:

a. Spread by the wind

b. When the spores reach the ground, they begin to germinate

c. Spread by animals

d. When the spores grow, they first give rise to new mycelium

e. All of the above

Which statement does not describe a way humans can use the metabolic pathways of fungi to their benefit?

Select one or more:

a. Humans use the metabolic pathways of fungi for making cheese

b. Humans use the metabolic pathways of fungi for making wine and beer

c. Medicines can be made from fungi

d. Fungi can be used for bioremediation since it can break down almost any carbon-containing compound (even jet fuel)

e. None of the above

According to the video on Penicillium, what happened when Alexander Fleming (a) mixed penicillin with his own blood or (b) why is this a good thing?

Select one or more:

a. He found the fungi does affect our cells by triggering mitosis

b. It is a good thing since the fungi only focuses on destroying bacteria that harm our body

c. He found the fungi does affect our cells by triggering meiosis

d. It is a good thing since the fungi only focuses on destroying prions that harm our body

e. He found the fungi does affect our cells by triggering budding

Which statement describes the fungi found within the Phylum Microsporidia?

Select one or more:

a. No evidence of sexual reproduction since they cannot be cultured in the lab independently of plant roots

b. Lack septa in their hyphae except when they form sporangia and gametangia

c. All species anaerobically digest cellulose and lignin in ruminant herbivores

d. Only fungal species to exhibit alterations of generations

e. Are intracellular parasites of many different animal species (especially insects)

Step-by-step answer

fficitur laoreetacinia pulvi

s a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Fusce dui lect

Donec aliquet. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Pellentesque dapibus efficitur laoreet. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac

Subscribe to view the full answer

Subject: Biology, Science

Why Join Course Hero?

Course Hero has all the homework and study help you need to succeed! We’ve got course-specific notes, study guides, and practice tests along with expert tutors.

  • -

    Study Documents

    Find the best study resources around, tagged to your specific courses. Share your own to gain free Course Hero access.

    Browse Documents
  • -

    Question & Answers

    Get one-on-one homework help from our expert tutors—available online 24/7. Ask your own questions or browse existing Q&A threads. Satisfaction guaranteed!

    Ask a Question