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Question 11 (1.5 points) How do fossils provide evidence of evolutionary history?
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Hi, can someone who is a professional in Biology tell me if I got my answers correct? I have gotten it checked by multiple people and all of the tell me that I got questions 14 and 16 incorrect and the rest is right. But I just want to make sure.

2. D.

3. B

4. C

5. B.

6. C.

7. A.

8. B.

9. A.

10.A.

11.A.

12.B.

13.A,B,C

14.A,B,C,D

15.C,D

16.A,B,D

17.Organisms such as asexually producing organisms (rotifers), organisms having similar phenotypic characters but living in different areas (Elephants of India and SriLanka), etc, are some examples that do not obey biological species concept. They fall under morphological species concept or ecological species or phylogenetic species.


18.Biological species concept was coined by Ernst Mayr and proposed that a species is group of individuals that can successfully interbreed and produce viable offsprings that can again interbreed among themselves or with parents. The barriers that can arise to reinforce speciation could be reproductive isolation due to disruptive selection that could involve prezygotic, such as behavioral, or post zygotic isolations such as gametic incompatibilities.


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Question 11 (1.5 points) How do fossils provide evidence of evolutionary history? 0 Fossils provide a record of extinct species. 0 Fossils provide an accurate account of the number of species that eist at any
particular time 0 Older fossils are an excellent source of DNA from which we can construct
molecular phylogenies O Fossils provide complete information on extinct species.
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Question 12 (1.5 points) The common ancestors of birds and mammals were very early (stem) reptiles, which
almost certainly possessed three-chambered hearts (two atria, one ventricle). Birds
and mammals, however are alike in having four-chambered hearts (two atria and two
ventricles). The four-chambered hearts of birds and mammals are best described as O the result of shared ancestry
O homoplasies O homologies
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Question 13 (4 points) Choose the statements that are TRUE about the figure. C] Meiosis errors are more often found in plants than in animals.
C] Increasing the number of chromosomes is an instant speciation event. C] If a tetraploid individual mates with a diploid individual it is likely the offspring
would either not survive or would be sterile. C] This is an example of allopatric speciation.
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Question 14 (4 points)
B
P = 8 x 10 B = 0.24
C
.. .
P = 0.39, B = 0.06
Bill depth (mm)
9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0
. 5110
.....
0.5
PC (Body size)
0.0
. .. . . .. .
.
-0.5
-1.0
. .. . ..
. 15210
2
3
5
2
Generation
Generation
Use the figures to determine if the following statements are TRUE.
The Big Bird body size is not significantly increasing.
The Big Bird beak depth is significantly increasing.
Beak size is increasing and becoming larger in some Big Birds than in the original
founding father G. conirostris.
In all the generations of Big Birds, their body size is smaller than the founding
father G. conirostris.
15a.png
Question 15 (4 points)
Hagfish
Jawless fish
Lampreys
Sharks
and Rays
Cartilaginous fish
Ray-finned fish
Coelacanths
Lobe-finned
Bony fish
Lungfish
fish
Frogs
Salamanders
s - Amphibians
Caecilians
Lizards
and snakes
Tetrapods
Turtles
- Sauropsids
Crocodiles
and alligators
Birds
Mammals
Biology How Life Works, Second Edition
2016 W.H. Freeman und Compuing
Use the phylogenetic tree below and choose only the TRUE statements that apply to
the figure
15b.png
Use the phylogenetic tree below and choose only the TRUE statements that apply to
the figure C] Bony fish are a polyphyletic group C] Turtles are more closely related to alligators and crocodiles than they are to
birds. C] Amphibians are a monophyletic group. C] Saurapods are a sister taxa to mammals
16a.png
Question 16 (4 points)
Flowers, fruit, divergence of reproductive actin
Angiosperms
Seeds, pollen
Leaves and roots.
Gymnosperms
Ferns
Vascular tissue
Selaginellales
Microphylis, roots
Isoetales
First land plants
Lycopodiales
Mosses
Liverworts
Hornworts
Use the phylogenetic tree below to determine if the statement is TRUE.
16b.png
Use the phylogenetic tree below to determine if the statement is TRUE. C] All land plants have a vascular system.
C] Mosses and liverworts are sister taxa.
C] Mosses have little tiny leaves. C] The pollen in spring is produced by gymnosperms and angiosperms.
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Question 17 (3 points) Which types of organisms do not fit easily into the biological species concept?
Which species concept would work best for those organisms?
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Question 18 (3 points) Define the biological species concept and explain the different barriers that can arise
to reinforce speciation.
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Question 2 (1.5 points) Compared with more distantly related taxa, the DNA sequences of two closely
related taxa are expected to show: 0 fewer differences; it is just by chance that recently diverging groups accumulate
fewer differences in DNA sequences 0 more differences; recently diverging groups have had more time to accumulate
differences 0 more differences; mutation rates accelerate during speciation events, leading to
more changes in DNA sequences 0 fewer differences; recently diverging groups have had less time to accumulate
differences
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Question 3 (1.5 points)
The accumulation of different mutation in genetically separated populations is
known as
and is key to speciation
intersexual selection
genetic divergence
reproductive fitness
reinforcement
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Question 4 (1.5 points) Three populations of crickets look very similar, but the males have courtship songs
that sound different. What function would this difference in song likely serve if the
populations came in contact? 0 a postzygotic isolating mechanism
O a temporal reproductive isolating mechanism
0 a behavioral reproductive isolating mechanism 0 a gametic reproductive isolating mechanism
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Question 5 (1.5 points) While in South America, you come across two groups of birds in the same location.
While they differ in color, they are nearly identical. After years of observation, you
conclude that the birds eat similar diets and share similar behaviors but they do not
reproduce with each other. The two groups of birds appear to be an example of O a single ecological species
0 two different species on the basis of reproductive behavior
0 a single biological species 0 two different species based on the basis of the ecological niche each group
occupies
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Question 6 (1.5 points)
Different species of fruit flies occupy each of the islands in the Hawaiian island
chain, a group of volcanic islands that formed one after the other. One hypothesis
for how the different fruit fly species formed is that, after each new island was
formed, fruit flies from existing islands colonized the new island and subsequently
diverged from their originating island. If this hypothesis is correct, it would be an
example of
O peripatric speciation by vicariance
O allopatric speciation by vicariance
allopatric speciation by dispersal
O synpatric speciation by dispersal
7.png
Question 7 (1.5 points) Frogs, birds, rabbits, and lizards all have different forelimbs, which makes sense when
you consider their different lifestyles. Interestingly, all of their forelimbs share the
same set of bones: humerus, radius and ulna. These same bones are also seen in
fossils of the extinct animal Eusthenopteron, which demonstrates common ancestry
among these four groups of animals. These forelimbs are an example of: O homologies O analogies O convergent evolution 0 homoplasies
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Question 8 (1.5 points)
Which of the following best describes the purpose of phylogenetics? O Phylogenetics compares anatomical or molecular features. 0 Phylogenetics looks for patterns of relatedness and compares anatomical or
molecular features. 0 Phylogenetics names species, genus, order, class, phylum, and kingdom. O Phylogenetics looks for patterns of relatedness.
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Question 9 (1.5 points) As a scientist at the Atlanta Botanical Gardens, you decide to construct a
phylogenetic tree of the orchid collection. You start with seven orchid species and
one lily. Why did you include the lily? O to serve as an outgroup
O to demonstrate likely homoplasies
O to see if the |in and the orchids show all the same shared derived characters 0 to see if the lily is a cryptic orchid species

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