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Biological Macromolecules (OpenStax Biology, Chapter 3) - Reinforcement  

1. What are the four macromolecules important to life: ____________________________________________

2.  Monomers combine with each other to create  _____________________________

3.  The creation of these large molecules releases water, the reaction is called:  ________________________

4.  What type of bond is created during this reaction? _______________________________

5.  Polymers can be broken down into individual ___________________________

    This process is called  ________________________________

6.  What can speed up these reactions? _________________________________________


3.2  Carbohydrates

7.  What is the ratio of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in carbohydrates? ___________________

8.  What is an example of a pentose monosaccharide? __________________   Hexose? ____________

9.  What is the chemical formula for glucose? ______________________________

10.  In plants, excess glucose is stored as _____________________________.

11. . Examine each of the monosaccharides below identified as hexoses.

Screen Shot 2020-09-09 at 6.15.55 PM.png

 

a) What is the molecular formula for each of these monosaccharides?_________________________

b) Molecules with the same molecular formula but differ structurally are called ___________________

c) Why are these molecules called hexoses? ______________________________________

 

12. Two monosaccharides can combine to create ______________________________________

13.  A covalent bond that forms between two monosaccharides is called a _______________________ bond.

14.  The most common disaccharide is ____________________________ (table sugar)


15.  Identify the monosaccharide monomers in each molecule.

   Screen Shot 2020-09-09 at 6.14.44 PM.png                       

16. A long chain of monosaccharides is called a _______________________________________

17. Starch is made from a mixture of  __________________________ and ______________________

18. What is the animal equivalent of starch? _________________________________

19. Where is cellulose found? ________________________________________

20.  How do grazing animals break down cellulose? _________________________________

21.  What carbohydrate is found in insect exoskeletons? __________________________________


3.3  Lipids


22. What does nonpolar mean? ________________________________________

23.  What are two functions of lipids? ____________________________________________

24.  What are the two main components of a fat molecule? _____________________________

25.  Saturated fats contain only  [ single / double ] bonds. 

26.  Which type of fat is liquid at room temperature? _________________________

27.  On the images below, identify the cis and the trans fat:

Screen Shot 2020-09-09 at 6.13.34 PM.png




28.  Why have many companies banned trans fats in their products? _____________________________

29.  Where would a person get Omega-3 fatty acids in their diet? _______________________________

30.  Why are leaf surfaces covered in wax? ____________________________________


31.  Where are phospholipids found? _____________________________

32.  Why is it called an "amphipathic" molecule? ____________________________________



33.   Label the phospholipid:  

Screen Shot 2020-09-09 at 6.09.38 PM.png



34.  Why are steroids grouped with other lipids?  _______________


35.  What makes them different?  _____________________________


36.  What are two examples of steroids?  __________________________






3.4 Proteins


37.  Enzymes are  ___________________________ for biochemical reactions. 

38.  What does amylase do? ___________________________________


39.  Identify the protein by its function:

_____________________ transport substances in the blood

_____________________ construction of the cytoskeleton

_____________________ protects body from foreign pathogens

_____________________ muscle contraction


40. What monomers make up proteins? ____________________________________

41.  What bond connects amino acids? ______________________________________

42.  How many amino acids are there? ________________________


42.  What are the four levels of protein structure?  ___________________________________


43.  What is denaturation? ____________________________________________

      What can cause it? ________________________________________________


3.5 Nucleic Acids


44.  DNA and RNA are made of what monomers? ___________________________

45.  What are the 3 components of a nucleotide? ________________________________________

46.  What are the two purines found in DNA? _____________________________ 

                                                  Pyrimidines? _____________________________


47.  What is the shape of the DNA molecule? _____________________________

48.  What is the rule for base pairing? ____________________________________

49.  What sugar is found in RNA? ____________________________


50. Label the DNA molecule:

Screen Shot 2020-09-09 at 6.10.34 PM.png

Image transcriptions

CH-OH CH,OH O CH,OH O O H H OH HO OH H H OH H H HO OH H HO OH H CH,OH H H H OH OH H H OH Glucose Fructose Galactose

CH.OH CH.OH H CH.OH OH O O OH CH.OH H OH OH OH H H HO OH CH.OH OH O OH H OH OH H Sucrose Lactose OH

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Biological Macromolecules (OpenStax Biology, Chapter 3) - Reinforcement 1. What are the four macromolecules important to life:
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