The Image and the Passage BELOW are for QUESTIONS 6.) , 7.) , AND 8.)
A researcher placed a sample of purified lipid in a test tube containing water. She observed the formation of spherical micelle structures in the solution. Ultrastructural analysis of the micelles showed a light outer shell and a denser inner core.
6.)Use the passage to answer the question.
The researcher hypothesizes that the lipid micelles are held together by non-covalent interactions. She tests this hypothesis by vigorously agitating the solution. Which of these observations would provide the STRONGEST support for her hypothesis?
- A.The number of micelles decreases, and the size of the micelles decreases.
- B.The number of micelles increases, and the size of the micelles decreases.
- C.The number of micelles decreases, and the size of the micelles increases.
- D.The number of micelles increases, and the size of the micelles increases.
7.) Use the passage to answer the question.
The researcher repeats the experiment by placing the lipids in a test tube containing acetone. No lipid micelles are formed in the test tube containing acetone. Which of these statements would BEST explain her observations?
- A.Water interacts non-covalently with lipids, but acetone does not.
- B.Acetone interacts non-covalently with lipids, but water does not.
- C.Both water and acetone interact non-covalently with lipids.
- D.Neither water nor acetone interacts non-covalently with lipids.
8.) Use the passage to answer the question.
The researcher isolates the micelles and uses mass spectrometry to identify functional groups found in the lipid. Which of these functional groups is MOST likely to be found in the center of the micelle?
9.) Which statement correctly describes the relationship between elements and compounds?
- A.Compounds contain fixed ratios of different elements.
- B.Elements contain fixed ratios of different compounds.
- C.Compounds contain variable ratios of different elements.
- D.Elements contain variable ratios of different compounds.
10.) Four substances (A, B, C, and D) are mixed in a test tube during a chemical reaction. The concentrations of the four substances are measured at 0s and at 100s.
Time (s) [A] (mM) [B] (mM) [C] (mM) [D] (mM)
0 1 5 3 5
100 2 5 1 2
Based on the data, which substance was a product of the chemical reaction?
- A.Substance A
- B.Substance B
- C.Substance C
- D.Substance D
11.) Use the image to answer the question.
Which statement BEST explains the arrangement of water molecules shown?
- A.Oxygen is negatively charged, and hydrogen is positively charged.
- B.Oxygen is positively charged, and hydrogen is negatively charged.
- C.Both oxygen and hydrogen are negatively charged.
- D.Both oxygen and hydrogen are positively charged.
12.) The answer to which of these scientific questions would MOST likely explain why all life on Earth is based on carbon?
- A.How many carbon isotopes are stable?
- B.How much carbon is found in Earth's crust?
- C.What are the naturally occurring states of carbon?
- D.What is the configuration of carbon's valence shell?
13.) A researcher observes the enzymatic polymerization of an organic molecule in a cell. Which enzyme is MOST likely responsible for catalyzing the reaction?
- A.a protein
- B.a nucleic acid
- C.a lipid
- D.a carbohydrate
14.) Which compound do plants use for structural support?
Use this SENTENCE and IMAGE BELOW to answer QUESTIONS 15.) , 16.) , 17.) , AND 18.).
The researcher then ran a protein gel to analyze the size of the protein before (Lane A) and after (Lane B) digestion.
15.) Use the passage to answer the question.
Based on the data in Lanes A and B, how many polypeptides does the quaternary structure of the unknown protein MOST likely contain?
16.) Use the passage to answer the question.
Which statement MOST accurately describes the enzymatic reaction performed by the researcher?
- A.Lipids are produced as a byproduct.
- B.Lipids are consumed as a reactant.
- C.Water is produced as a byproduct.
- D.Water is consumed as a reactant.
17.) Use the passage to answer the question.
Which step was most likely performed by the researcher during the purification process?
- A.The protein was separated from lipids.
- B.The protein was stabilized using lipids.
- C.The protein was separated from nucleic acids.
- D.The protein was separated from nucleic acids.
18.) Use the passage to answer the question.
Based on the protein gel, the researcher concludes that the protein is glycosylated. How would the gel MOST likely appear if the protein were not glycosylated?
19.) Which compound would be MOST easily formulated as an aqueous solution used to quickly provide energy to an athlete?
- B.nucleic acids
20.) If the lipid membrane of a cell were disrupted, the largest fraction of the resulting sample would MOST likely contain which compound?
- B.actin proteins
- C.glucose sugars
- D.deoxyribose nucleic acids
21.) A student isolates a sample of nucleic acids from a cell. Which of these experiments can the student perform to distinguish whether the isolated compound is DNA or RNA?
- A.compare the ratio of oxygen to carbon in the compound
- B.compare the ratio of oxygen to nitrogen in the compound
- C.compare the ratio of phosphorus to carbon in the compound
- D.compare the ratio of phosphorus to nitrogen in the compound
22.) Certain cells, such as erythrocytes, do not contain DNA. Which of these is MOST likely true for these cells?
- A.They do not move.
- B.They do not reproduce.
- C.They do not contain proteins.
- D.They do not perform homeostasis.
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