Human development and growth.
Why is it difficult to determine the prenatal effects of many environmental agents (teratogens), such as drugs, alcohol, and pollution? (Teratogens: The term teratogen refers to any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period. The harm done by teratogens is not always simple and straightforward. It depends on the following factors: ● Dose. Larger doses over longer time periods usually have more negative effects. ● Heredity. The genetic makeup of the mother and the developing organism plays an important role. Some individuals are better able than others to withstand harmful environments.● Other negative influences. The presence of several negative factors at once, such as additional teratogens, poor nutrition, and lack of medical care, can worsen the impact of a harmful agent. ● Age. The effects of teratogens vary with the age of the organism at time of p. 66), and how does the COVID-19 affect pregnancy and developing fetus?
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