Part I - Human ABO Blood Type "But I already know all this stuff! I'll do well on the test tomorrow, I promise," begged Kevin. He really
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Discuss the genetics of ABO Blood types, including Rh factor What is the difference between genetic inheritance and genetic variation? What type of antigens and antibodies occur in each of the four blood? From the Homework section of the case study- Identify the genotypes of Tom, Anna and their children. 16771291

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Part I - Human ABO Blood Type "But I already know all this stuff! I'll do well on the test tomorrow, I promise," begged Kevin. He really wanted to go out that night with his friend, but his mother had other ideas. "No, absolutely not. You're going to stay home and study; tomorrow's test is very important," his mother replied. Kevin ended up staying home that night, reluctantly. The next day Kevin met his best friend Peter. "How's it going?" asked Peter. "Not so good. We had a test today. I guess it went all right," said Kevin. "How's your stomach doing? Is it still sore?" Peter asked. "Oh, it's better now. You know, there's something weird going on. Last time I was in the hospital, neither of my parents could donate blood to me. The doc said they aren't a match for my blood type." "They don't match? What do you mean?" Peter asked. "Well, the doc said I'm type O positive, my mom is type A positive, and my dad is type B negative. We're all different, and I don't get it. They're my parents-I mean, I should inherit my blood type from at least one of them, if not both, right?" "That's a good point," Peter agreed. "Well, I've got a very cool science teacher, Ms. B. She would know better than us. Let's ask her. She has a class tomorrow. We can meet her afterward. What do you say?" The next day, Kevein and Peter met Ms. B. and explained Kevin's puzzle about his family's blood types. "Ah, good question," replied Ms. B. "Let me explain how blood types work so that it will help you to understand why your parents couldn't donate blood to you and how you can all have different blood types in one and the same family." "The ABO blood group system is one of the most important systems that hospitals use to identify individuals for blood transfusion. ABO stands for the type of carbohydrate that sits on the surface of red blood cells; it's this carbohydrate that allows cells to recognize themselves. They are also called surface markers. Positive (+) refers to the presence of Rhesus (Rh) factor. Some individuals lack Rh factor, and they are negative (-). Rh factor is a predominant protein surface marker on red blood cells." "Interesting. What is carbohydrate exactly? The stuff we eat, like bread and sugar?" Peter asked. "Yes. Sugar is a carbohydrate and bread is made of lots of different carbohydrates. Red blood cells may have carbohydrate A on the cell surface, which results in type A blood; but if they have carbohydrate B, then they become type B blood. Some red blood cells have both carbohydrate A and B, which makes them have type AB blood. When neither carbohydrate A nor B is present on the red blood cell surface, the blood type is considered to be type O." That made sense to Peter, who then asked "How do red blood cells get those carbohydrates?"

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