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Each time a molecule of glucose (C6H12O6) is completely oxidized via aerobic respiration, how many oxygen molecules (O2) are required?

Each time a molecule of glucose (C6H12O6) is completely oxidized via aerobic respiration, how many oxygen molecules (O2) are required?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 6
D) 12
E) 38

_______
1. A young animal has never had much energy. He is brought to a veterinarian for help and is sent to the animal hospital for some tests. There they discover his mitochondria can use only fatty acids and amino acids for respiration, and his cells produce more lactate than normal. Of the following, which is the best explanation of his condition?
A) His mitochondria lack the transport protein that moves pyruvate across the outer mitochondrial membrane.
B) His cells cannot move NADH from glycolysis into the mitochondria.
C) His cells contain something that inhibits oxygen use in his mitochondria.
D) His cells lack the enzyme in glycolysis that forms pyruvate.
E) His cells have a defective electron transport chain, so glucose goes to lactate instead of to acetyl CoA.

_______
2. Each time a molecule of glucose (C6H12O6) is completely oxidized via aerobic respiration, how many oxygen molecules (O2) are required?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 6
D) 12
E) 38

_______
3. Which metabolic pathway is common to both cellular respiration and fermentation?
A) the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
B) the citric acid cycle
C) oxidative phosphorylation
D) glycolysis[.
‘p;l
E) chemiosmosis

_______
4. During oxidative phosphorylation, H2O is formed. Where does the oxygen for the synthesis of the water come from?
A) carbon dioxide (CO2)
B) glucose (C6H12O6)
C) molecular oxygen (O2)
D) pyruvate (C3H3O3-)
E) lactate (C3H5O3-)

_______
5. In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, resulting in the production of
A) ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol).
B) ATP, CO2, and lactate.
C) ATP, NADH, and pyruvate.
D) ATP, pyruvate, and oxygen.
E) ATP, pyruvate, and acetyl CoA.


_______
6. The direct energy source that drives ATP synthesis during respiratory oxidative phosphorylation is
A) oxidation of glucose to CO2 and water.
B) the thermodynamically favorable flow of electrons from NADH to the mitochondrial electron transport carriers.
C) the final transfer of electrons to oxygen.
D) the difference in H+ concentrations on opposite sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
E) the thermodynamically favorable transfer of phosphate from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle intermediate molecules of ADP.

_______ 7. Approximately what percentage of the energy of glucose (C6H12O6) is transferred to storage in ATP as a result of the complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 and water in cellular respiration?
A) 2%
B) 4%
C) 10%
D) 25%
E) 40%

_______
8. One function of both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation is to
A) reduce NAD+ to NADH.
B) reduce FAD+ to FADH2.
C) oxidize NADH to NAD+.
D) reduce FADH2 to FAD+.
E) none of the above


_______
9. During aerobic respiration, which of the following directly donates electrons to the electron transport chain at the lowest energy level?
A) NAD+
B) NADH
C) ATP
D) ADP + Pi
E) FADH2

_______
10. What is the purpose of beta oxidation in respiration?
A) oxidation of glucose
B) oxidation of pyruvate
C) feedback regulation
D) control of ATP accumulation
E) breakdown of fatty acids





_______
10. What is the purpose of beta oxidation in respiration?
A) oxidation of glucose
B) oxidation of pyruvate
C) feedback regulation
D) control of ATP accumulation
E) breakdown of fatty acids





_______
11. The reaction-center chlorophyll of photosystem I is known as P700 because
A) there are 700 chlorophyll molecules in the center.
B) this pigment is best at absorbing light with a wavelength of 700 nm.
C) there are 700 photosystem I components to each chloroplast.
D) it absorbs 700 photons per microsecond.
E) the plastoquinone reflects light with a wavelength of 700 nm.

_______
12. In mitochondria, chemiosmosis translocates protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, chemiosmosis translocates protons from
A) the stroma to the photosystem II.
B) the matrix to the stroma.
C) the stroma to the thylakoid space.
D) the intermembrane space to the matrix.
E) ATP synthase to NADP+ reductase.

_______
13. Produces molecular oxygen (O2)
A) light reactions alone
B) the Calvin cycle alone
C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle
D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle
E) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis

_______
14. When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a by-product of which of the following?
A) reducing NADP+
B) splitting the water molecules
C) chemiosmosis
D) the electron transfer system of photosystem I
E) the electron transfer system of photosystem II

_______
15.


The Figure above shows the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a and the action spectrum for photosynthesis. Why are they different?
A) Green and yellow wavelengths inhibit the absorption of red and blue wavelengths.
B) Bright sunlight destroys photosynthetic pigments.
C) Oxygen given off during photosynthesis interferes with the absorption of light.
D) Other pigments absorb light in addition to chlorophyll a.
E) Aerobic bacteria take up oxygen which changes the measurement of the rate of photosynthesis.



_______
16. Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?
A) CO2 and glucose
B) H2O and O2
C) ADP, Pi, and NADP+
D) electrons and H+
E) ATP and NADPH

_______ 17. Which of the following statements best represents the relationships between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle?
A) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the cycle returns ADP, Pi, and NADP+ to the light reactions.
B) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the carbon fixation step of the Calvin cycle, and the cycle provides water and electrons to the light reactions.
C) The light reactions supply the Calvin cycle with CO2 to produce sugars, and the Calvin cycle supplies the light reactions with sugars to produce ATP.
D) The light reactions provide the Calvin cycle with oxygen for electron flow, and the Calvin cycle provides the light reactions with water to split.
E) There is no relationship between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle.

_______
18. Which statement describes the functioning of photosystem II?
A) Light energy excites electrons in the electron transport chain in a photosynthetic unit.
B) The excitation is passed along to a molecule of P700 chlorophyll in the photosynthetic unit.
C) The P680 chlorophyll donates a pair of protons to NADPH, which is thus converted to NADP+.
D) The electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water.
E) The splitting of water yields molecular carbon dioxide as a by-product.

_______
19. Reduction of NADP+ occurs during
A) photosynthesis.
B) respiration.
C) both photosynthesis and respiration.
D) neither photosynthesis nor respiration.
E) photorespiration.

_______
20. In the process of carbon fixation, RuBP attaches a CO2 to produce a 6 carbon molecule, which is then split in two. After phosphorylation and reduction, what more needs to happen in the Calvin cycle?
A) addition of a pair of electrons from NADPH
B) inactivation of RuBP carboxylase enzyme
C) regeneration of ATP from ADP
D) regeneration of RuBP
E) a gain of NADPH




_______
10. What is the purpose of beta oxidation in respiration?
A) oxidation of glucose
B) oxidation of pyruvate
C) feedback regulation
D) control of ATP accumulation
E) breakdown of fatty acids





_______
11. The reaction-center chlorophyll of photosystem I is known as P700 because
A) there are 700 chlorophyll molecules in the center.
B) this pigment is best at absorbing light with a wavelength of 700 nm.
C) there are 700 photosystem I components to each chloroplast.
D) it absorbs 700 photons per microsecond.
E) the plastoquinone reflects light with a wavelength of 700 nm.

_______
12. In mitochondria, chemiosmosis translocates protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, chemiosmosis translocates protons from
A) the stroma to the photosystem II.
B) the matrix to the stroma.
C) the stroma to the thylakoid space.
D) the intermembrane space to the matrix.
E) ATP synthase to NADP+ reductase.

_______
13. Produces molecular oxygen (O2)
A) light reactions alone
B) the Calvin cycle alone
C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle
D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle
E) occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis

_______
14. When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a by-product of which of the following?
A) reducing NADP+
B) splitting the water molecules
C) chemiosmosis
D) the electron transfer system of photosystem I
E) the electron transfer system of photosystem II

_______
15.


The Figure above shows the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a and the action spectrum for photosynthesis. Why are they different?
A) Green and yellow wavelengths inhibit the absorption of red and blue wavelengths.
B) Bright sunlight destroys photosynthetic pigments.
C) Oxygen given off during photosynthesis interferes with the absorption of light.
D) Other pigments absorb light in addition to chlorophyll a.
E) Aerobic bacteria take up oxygen which changes the measurement of the rate of photosynthesis.



_______
16. Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?
A) CO2 and glucose
B) H2O and O2
C) ADP, Pi, and NADP+
D) electrons and H+
E) ATP and NADPH

_______ 17. Which of the following statements best represents the relationships between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle?
A) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the cycle returns ADP, Pi, and NADP+ to the light reactions.
B) The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the carbon fixation step of the Calvin cycle, and the cycle provides water and electrons to the light reactions.
C) The light reactions supply the Calvin cycle with CO2 to produce sugars, and the Calvin cycle supplies the light reactions with sugars to produce ATP.
D) The light reactions provide the Calvin cycle with oxygen for electron flow, and the Calvin cycle provides the light reactions with water to split.
E) There is no relationship between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle.

_______
18. Which statement describes the functioning of photosystem II?
A) Light energy excites electrons in the electron transport chain in a photosynthetic unit.
B) The excitation is passed along to a molecule of P700 chlorophyll in the photosynthetic unit.
C) The P680 chlorophyll donates a pair of protons to NADPH, which is thus converted to NADP+.
D) The electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water.
E) The splitting of water yields molecular carbon dioxide as a by-product.

_______
19. Reduction of NADP+ occurs during
A) photosynthesis.
B) respiration.
C) both photosynthesis and respiration.
D) neither photosynthesis nor respiration.
E) photorespiration.

_______
20. In the process of carbon fixation, RuBP attaches a CO2 to produce a 6 carbon molecule, which is then split in two. After phosphorylation and reduction, what more needs to happen in the Calvin cycle?
A) addition of a pair of electrons from NADPH
B) inactivation of RuBP carboxylase enzyme
C) regeneration of ATP from ADP
D) regeneration of RuBP
E) a gain of NADPH




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