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Which of the following best describes the process of ventilation?

Which of the following best describes the process of ventilation?
11.
______
A)
the diffusion of gases into and out of the circulatory system
B)
the movement of air through lungs or gills
C)
the diffusion of gases into and out of tissues where cellular respiration occurs
D)
the movement of carbon dioxide gas through the blood of the circulatory system
E)
the movement of oxygen gas through the blood of the circulatory system

13.
In the countercurrent exchange respiratory system of fish, which of the following would not be expected?

A)
In the back (posterior) portion of the gill, the amount of carbon dioxide in the gills is higher than the water.
B)
Blood flows through the gills from anterior to posterior.
C)
In the front (anterior) portion of the gill, the amount of oxygen in the gills is lower than the water.
D)
Water travels over the gills from anterior to posterior.

14.
A mutation results in a form of hemoglobin that has binding sites for four molecules of oxygen but does not exhibit cooperative binding. Which of the following would result?

A)
Each hemoglobin molecule would bind only one molecule of oxygen.
B)
Oxygen would be delivered to the tissues more readily than in a normal individual.
C)
The oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve would be unaffected.
D)
Both A and C would occur.
E)
None of the above would result.

15.
In what way does hemoglobin act as a buffer against changes in blood pH?

A)
Hemoglobin produces protons or hydroxide ions as needed to alter the blood pH.
B)
Subsequent binding of oxygen is drastically reduced after the first one is bound.
C)
Hemoglobin binds some of the excess protons released by carbonic acid.
D)
Hemoglobin removes excess protons from the red blood cells so that they can be excreted through the kidneys.
E)
All of the above answers apply.

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