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BRONX COMMUNITY COLLEGE Anatomy & Physiology II/T4/HH Spring 2010


Anatomy & Physiology II/T4/HH Spring 2010

Water Balance & Digestion

Multiple Choices: 2 marks each
Choose the most appropriate answers to statements or questions given and then shade their letters on the scantron sheet provided.

1. Most of the body water is in the
A. intracellular fluid (ICF).
B. tissue (interstitial) fluid.
C. extracellular fluid (ECF).
D. blood plasma and lymph.
E. transcellular fluid.

2. Which statement about antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is incorrect?
A. has a similar effect as angiotensin II secretion.
B. promotes water conservation.
C. stimulates hypothalamic osmoreceptors.
D. inhibits salivation and thirst.
E. is produced by the pituitary gland

3. Water output is significantly controlled through variations in
A. metabolic water.
B. sweating.
C. cutaneous transpiration.
D. drinking.
E. urine volume.

4. A young child is suffering from gastroenteritis and experiencing
severe diarrhea and vomiting. A negative effect of this on his body
will be:
A. dehydration
B. loss of critical ions
C. possible alkalosis
D. effects of pathogenic toxins overriding the action ADH
E. all of the above

5. This is the principal cation of the ECF.
A. Ca2+ B. Cl- C. K+ D. Na+ E. Pi

Questions 6 and 7 are based on the diagram below of a process occurring in the digestive tract.

6. The process shown is known as
A. deglutition
B. segmentation
C. peristalsis
D. ingestion
E. salivation

7. Which structure of the intestinal wall would be responsible
for narrowing of the tube shown by the first set of arrows?
A. esophagus
B. circular muscle
C. longitudinal muscle
D. mucosa
E. gastric pit

8. Aldosterone receptors would be found on cells of the
A. loop of Henle
B. proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
C. distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
D. all of the above
E. none of the above is correct

9. Hypernatremia is a plasma ___ concentration above normal.
A. Ca2+
B. Na+
C. K+
D. Cl-
E. Pi
10. The total body water (TBW) content of a 70 kg young male is
about__ liters.
A. 10
B. 20
C. 40
D. 60
E. 70

11. Which of the following is not a function of calcium ?
A. muscle contraction.
B. component of nucleic acids.
C. serves as a second messenger.
D. activates exocytosis.
E. important in blood clotting.

12. The major chemical buffers systems of the body are the ___
A. urinary and respiratory
. B. urinary and digestive
C. bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein
D. bicarbonate, nucleic acids, and protein
E. bicarbonate, phosphate, and nitrate

13. Bacterial flora of the colon carry out all of the following except
A. digest most of the proteins we get in the diet.
B. synthesize vitamin K.
C. production of the gases found in flatus.
D. form part of the feces.
E. none of the above

14. The muscle tone of the ________________ along the colon contracts it lengthwise, causing its walls to bulge and form pouches called _______________.
A. circular folds; ceca
B. taeniae coli; haustra
C. haustra; taeniae coli
D. internal sphincters; omental (epiploic) appendages
E. internal sphincters; ceca
15. The three classes of nutrients which undergo digestion are
A. carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals.
B. fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
C. proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates.
D. triglycerides, starches, and proteins.
E. proteins, fats, and minerals.
16. Bile droplets called___ transport lipids to the brush border of the intestinal absorptive cells, which process them into ___________.
A. fat droplets; micelles
B. fat droplets; chylomicrons
C. micelles; fat globules
D. micelles; chylomicrons
E. fat globules; micelles
17. Proteins are digested by different enzymes acting in the following sequence.
A. pepsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase.
B. pepsin, trypsin, dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase.
C. trypsin, pepsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase.
D. trypsin, pepsin, dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase.
E. dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase, pepsin, trypsin.
18. Amino acids and monosaccharides are absorbed in the _____, while fatty acids are absorbed in the _______________.
A. small intestine; large intestine
B. small intestine; liver
C. stomach; small intestine
D. stomach; large intestine
E. capillaries; lacteals
19. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ____, whereas protein digestion begins in the _______.
A. liver; small intestine
B. small intestine; stomach
C. mouth; stomach
D. mouth; small intestine
E. stomach; small intestine
20. The migrating motor complex:
A. milks the chyme toward the colon.
B. allows a bolus to move down the esophagus.
C. churns and mixes residue in the descending colon.
D. churns and mixes the bola with gastric juices.
E. propels pancreatic juice down the pancreatic duct.
21. The small intestine has a very large absorptive surface associated with all these structures except
A. circular folds (plicae circulares).
B. intestinal length.
C. microvilli.
D. villi.
E. rugae.
22. Which of these is the site of contact digestion?
A. gastric pits
B. surface of the gastric mucosa
C. intestinal crypts
D. brush border of the small intestine
E. cytoplasm in the cells of the small intestine
23. Which of the following enzymes functions at the lowest pH?
A. salivary amylase
B. pancreatic amylase
C. pepsin
D. trypsin
E. dipeptidase

Question 24 is based on the diagram below which shows the interaction between different structures of the digestive system.
24. The diagram shows:
A. the regurgitation of food from the duodenum to the stomach,
pancreas and gall bladder by antiperistalsis.
B. that the functions of the alimentary compartments are regulated by
paracrine secretions.
C. intestinal secretions can affect the rate of digestive processes.
D. all the above are correct
E. only B and C are correct.

25. Which of these nutrients is absorbed by the lacteals of the small
A. triglycerides
B. amino acids
C. glucose
D. minerals
E. fatty acids

26. The _____synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing _________.
A. duodenum; neutral fats
B. ileum; bilirubin
C. gallbladder; cholesterol
D. pancreas; bile salts
E. liver; cholesterol
27. The diagram below shows a lesion in the wall of the stomach. Which of the following is not a reasonable explanation for this condition?

A. Food stretching the stomach wall
B. The invasion of acid-resistant bacteria
C. Hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid
D. The action of pepsin on the stomach wall
E. Hyposecretion of mucus

28. The enterogastric reflex serves to
A. relax the stomach in preparation for swallowed food.
B. stimulate acid and enzyme secretion when food enters the
C. stimulate intestinal motility when there is food in the stomach.
D. inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestine.
E. relax the ileocecal valve when chyme is on its way to the colon.

29. Which is an incorrect statement about zymogens?
A. they speed up activities because they start digesting intracellular
proteins of the gastric cells more quickly.
B. They are dormant forms of enzymes
C. They must be activated in order to carry out their functions.
D. An example of a zymogen is chymotripsinogen
E. All of the above are correct.
30. Pepsinogen is produced by ____ and is activated by _________.
A. chief cells; carbonic anhydrase (CAH).
B. chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCl)
C. parietal cells; hydrochloric acid (HCl)
D. parietal cells; carbonic anhydrase (CAH).
E. enteroendocrine cells; carbonic anhydrase (CAH)
31. Acid reflux into the esophagus is normally prevented by:
A. pharyngeal constrictors.
B. the upper esophageal sphincter.
C. the lower esophageal sphincter (LES).
D. esophageal glands.
E, pharyngeal and buccal sphincters
32. The buccal phase of swallowing is under ___ control and the
pharyngo-esophageal phase is ____.
A. central nervous system; also controlled by the central nervous
B. central nervous system; controlled by autonomic reflexes
C. autonomic nervous system; controlled by autonomic reflexes
D. voluntary; also voluntary
E. involuntary; also involuntary

33. The swallowing center is located in the ___.
A. mouth B. oropharynx
C. medulla oblongata D. enteric nervous system.
34. The ____ regulates digestive tract motility, secretion, and blood flow and its neurons are found in the ____.
A. autonomic nervous system; serosa
B. central nervous system; muscularis externa and muscularis
C. enteric nervous system; submucosa and muscularis externa
D. visceral sensory division; muscularis externa and submucosa
E. visceral motor division; mucosa and submucosa

35. Chemical digestion breaks down ______into _____________.
A. proteins; nucleotides
B. amino acids; proteins
C. polysaccharides; amino acids
D. nucleic acids; nucleotides
E. fatty acids; cholesterol

36. ____________ is the physiological process that moves a nutrient from the outside to the inside of the body.
A. Ingestion
B. Compaction
C. Digestion
D. Absorption
E. Secretion
37. The structures below are important to digestion because:

A. they produce hydrochloric acid
B. increase the area for absorption
C. keep the intestinal tract free of debris
D. direct the food into the large intestine
E. all the above answers are correct
Questions 38-40 are based on the diagram below:

38. The diagram shows:
A. hydrolytic activities
B. protein digestion in the stomach
C. would involve proteases and at least one kinase
D. will result in the production of chyme
E. All the above

39. Based in the food being ingested:
A. digestion began in the mouth and will continue in the small intestine
B. digestion will also involve amylases and lipases
C. the end products shown above would most likely be oligopeptides
D. the final end products of the food is completely digested will include monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids
E. all the above

40. The type of chemical bonds at the arrows would be ___bonds.
A. peptide B. glycosidic C. ester D. Hydrogen

41. The function of enterokinase is to
A. convert pepsinogen to pepsin
B. convert trypsinogen to trypsin
C. convert chymotrypsinogen to chymotrypsin
D. digest dietary proteins
E. digest dietary fats

42. Cane sugar is digested by
A. sucrase
B. sucrose
C. lactase
D. lactose
E. maltase
43. Pancreatic enzymes are secreted in response to the hormone

A. insulin
B. cholecystokinin
C. secretin
D. glucagon
E. gastrin

44. Of the following components of bile, only____has/have a digestive function.
A. bile salts
B. bilirubin
C. cholesterol
D. phospholipids
E. neutral fats.

True and False 1 mark each

45. The digestive system processes food, extracts nutrients, and eliminates the residue.

46. The enteric nervous system regulates much of the digestive activity but its action depends on the central nervous system.

47. The muscles of the alimentary canal consist of electrically excitable cells.

48. Odor, sight, and taste stimulate salivatory nuclei in the cerebral cortex

49. Both pancreatic juice and bile are secreted into the duodenum.

50. The primary role of the large intestine is to absorb ions, water, vitamins, to maintain homeostasis.

51. You are sharing pizza with your friends. Digestion of the oil will begin in the stomach.

52. The stomach has adjustable opening to facilitate storage of food.
53. Both voluntary and involuntary and actions are involved in defecation.
54. The blood vessel that transports nutrients away from the digested tract is the hepatic vein.
55. Human digestive processes take place in the cells of the alimentary canal.
56. The production of chymosin increases with age.

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