2. Elsie, age 80, complains that the food in her assisted living facility is "tasteless." She adds salt to everything and secretly snacks on sugary treats that she has in her room. Elsie:
A) is compensating for her decline in taste by eating the sweet snacks.
B) needs to move to another facility where the chef is more sensitive to her needs.
C) probably has a tumor or a small stroke in the part of the brain associated with taste.
D) probably is depressed and complains about everything.
3. Luka is 72 years old. According to trends noticed in research about how gender roles may or may not change with age, we can expect that Luka is now ________ she was when she was 50.
A) more feminine than
B) more masculine than
C) less feminine than
D) about as feminine as
4. Alice, Jane, Lois, and Sandra have been friends since grade school. Over the years, they given each other support and shared in each others' joys and sad times. This is an example of which model of social support?
A) the longitudinal model
B) the cohort model
C) the convoy model
D) the network model
5. Of the following adults, who is MOST likely to commit suicide?
A) a male in failing health
B) a recently widowed woman
C) an unhappily married woman
D) a widowed man who has just retired
6. What is the main difference between the way younger people and older people respond to stress?
A) Older people have a reduced production of hormones that return the body to normal after stress.
B) Younger people have better coping strategies for dealing with stress.
C) The process of aging increases the pituitary gland's response to stress, making it work harder.
D) Older people keep stress hormones in their system longer.
7. Which type of memory is less likely to be adversely affected by aging?
Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and family?
A) activity theory
B) socioemotional selectivity theory
C) social discontinuity theory
D) disengagement theory
9. Ramon wears a black lapel pin for one year after his father's death. According to Kastenbaum's death systems theory, the lapel pin is a(n) _____ associated with death.
D) family tradition
10. Millie's physician told her that she needs to reduce her stress. To do this, she should:
A) exercise more.
B) take an assertiveness training course.
C) increase social interactions with peers.
D) reduce caffeine intake.
11. The neurotransmitter _______, which helps to control the preciseness of the signal sent from one neuron to another, decreases with aging.
12. Basilio sustained severe and irreversible brain damage due to an accidental overdose of insulin. His wife and his children decided to remove the life-support system, and Basilio subsequently died. This is an example of:
A) active euthanasia.
B) passive euthanasia.
C) natural euthanasia.
D) culturally acceptable euthanasia.
13. ________ has(have) been shown to reduce the decrease in muscle mass and improve the older person's body appearance.
A) Weight lifting
14. What is the cause of multi-infarct dementia?
A) dying off of dendrite branches
B) a reduction of acetylcholine in the brain
C) a closing of the ventricles in the brain
D) obstruction of blood flow in the cerebral arteries of the brain
15. Paul, age 76, turns the television volume up so that it is at an uncomfortable level for the rest of the family. When his son suggests that he may have a hearing problem, Paul says that he does not and that the volume is "just right." Paul's reaction to having a decline in his ability to hear it is:
A) fairly common in older adults.
B) out of the ordinary; most older adults clearly recognize that they don't hear well.
C) a sign of depression.
D) a sign of hostility toward his family.
16. Which of the following vitamins is an antioxidant?
A) vitamin B
B) vitamin C
C) vitamin D
D) vitamin K
Sally's husband Bruce died suddenly 3 months ago. When her sister-in-law calls to ask how she is doing, Sally says, "Some days are better than others but I miss Bruce every single day." Sally's comment indicates that she:
A) is experiencing a normal grief reaction.
B) is experiencing a prolonged grief reaction.
C) is experiencing a disenfranchised grief reaction.
D) is experiencing a pathological grief reaction
Although Alicia has a great memory for trivia, she has difficulty remembering important events in her life. Alicia has good ________ memory but poor ________ memory.
A) episodic; procedural
B) procedural; semantic
C) semantic; episodic
D) explicit; implicit
Sex education for elderly people has been found to:
A) increase older adults' willingness to talk about sex.
B) increase sexual activity among the elderly.
C) suppress the need for sex that older people feel.
D) create considerable unhappiness among people who do not have the capacity to practice what they are learning.
What is the best predictor of job performance in older adults?
A) cognitive ability
B) strong work ethic
C) high motivation to succeed
D) financial need
The number of years that will probably be lived by the average person born in a particular year is the:
A) life expectancy.
B) life span.
C) life development.
D) biological age.
Approximately __________ of survivors experience normal or uncomplicated grief reactions.
A) 80 to 90%
B) 70 to 80%
C) 60 to 70%
D) 50 to 60%
The development of new neurons in humans has been documented in the ______ and the _______.
A) medulla; thalamus
B) amygdale; hypothalamus
C) hippocampus; olfactory bulb
D) thalamus; pineal gland
The hospice was developed with the goal of:
A) providing inexpensive medical care to those who need it.
B) making the final stage of dying pain-free.
C) giving spiritual and religious counsel to the dying.
D) giving patients a place to stay while they recover from a chronic illness.
Mrs. Hernandez has considerable pain and swelling in her wrists, fingers, and knees. It is becoming very difficult for her to maintain her usual routines as her stiffness increases. Mrs. Hernandez has _______.
When compared with other ethnic groups, ________ have the highest death rate.
A) African Americans
B) Asian Americans
Jake is only 25 but wants to reduce his chance of losing cognitive impairment when he is older. What can he do now to prepare?
A) eat foods low in fat
B) do crossword puzzles
C) engage in aerobic exercise
D) quit smoking
________ is to cognitive mechanics, as ________ is to cognitive pragmatics.
A) Hardware; software
B) Software; hardware
C) Developing programs; using programs
D) Using programs; developing programs
One nonmedication treatment that has helped to improve the daily functioning of some patients with Parkinson disease is:
A) electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).
B) cutting the corpus callosum in the brain.
C) deep brain stimulation (DBS).
According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, the second stage of dying is:
D) denial and isolation.
The Women's Health Initiative Study of Widowhood was a 3-year longitudinal study designed to examine the ________ of widows.
A) physical health
B) mental health
C) health outcomes
D) All of these.
Maribel's mother needs more services to allow her to continue to live in her own home. Her daughter, Susan, contacts various agencies to line up a home health aid, transportation to medical appointments and Meals-On-Wheels. Susan is acting in the role of _______ for her mother.
A) direct caregiver
B) caregiver by proxy
D) power of attorney
Cody is a manager for a fast-food restaurant where he has workers ranging from age 17 to 72. Which of the following workers is MOST likely to want to pick up extra hours when Cody asks for volunteers?
A) Stacy, a 17-year-old high-school student
B) Mort, a 50-year-old cook
C) Helen, a 68-year-old former teacher
D) Judy, a 22-year-old college student
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding young children and their perception of death?
A) They tend to confuse death with sleep.
B) They often believe that only people who want to die actually die.
C) They become very upset by the sight of a dead animal or by being told that a person had died.
D) They believe that the dead can be brought back to life by magic or by giving them food or medical treatment.
When a retired American worker returns to work, it is usually about __________ after retirement.
A) 6 months
B) 1½ years
C) 4 years
D) 7 years
Which of the following statements about older workers is TRUE?
A) Older workers have more accidents than younger workers.
B) Older workers have higher rates of absenteeism than younger workers.
C) Older workers are of considerably less value to a company than younger workers.
D) Older workers experience more job satisfaction than younger workers.
At age 76 years, which chronic condition is Elizabeth MOST likely to have?
B) heart disease
D) hearing impairment
Which of the following describes a biological component to the difference in life expectancies between men and women?
A) higher versus lower rates of emphysema
B) existence versus absence of sleep disorders
C) existence versus absence of an X chromosome
D) existence versus absence of a reasoned, practical life view
Remembering where you went on vacation last summer is an example of _______ memory.
Zack is in a crowded restaurant trying to pay attention to the waiter who is reading off the daily lunch specials. He is having a difficult time because ________ attention declines as one ages.
What do Pablo Casals, John Rock, and Grandma Moses have in common?
A) They are all individuals who contributed little until they were old.
B) They are people who were intellectually productive well into old age.
C) They are all scientists whose important discoveries occurred when they were very old.
D) They are all examples of how old age gradually reduces mental abilities that flourished in earlier life.
In a cross-sectional study of persons ranging in age from age 13 to 90, researchers found that self-control was lowest in the _________ domain for the individuals who were 60 to 90 years old.
One of the most common language difficulties that older adults experience is:
A) expressive aphasia.
C) making up new words that other people don't understand.
D) tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
What percentage of dementias is multi-infarct?
A) 2% to 5%
B) 5% to 15%
C) 15% to 25%
Josue has incurable cancer. However, he promises to lead a reformed life dedicated to God if God will spare his life. Josue is in which of Kübler-Ross' stages of dying?
The results of research on health of older adults and cohabitating has:
A) shown a clear increase in overall health for cohabitating couples.
B) has been mixed.
C) shows that cohabitating older couples were less depressed than married couples.
D) shows a slight decrease in overall health for cohabitating couples.
In a cross-sectional study of persons ranging in age from age 13 to 90, researchers found that self-control was lowest in the _________ domain for the individuals who were 13 to 18 years old.
Some researchers believe that reduction in acetylcholine may be responsible for:
A) small declines in memory functioning and severe memory loss associated with Alzheimer disease.
B) small declines in memory functioning but not in severe memory loss associated with Alzheimer disease.
C) severe memory loss associated with Alzheimer disease but not small declines in memory functioning.
D) neither small declines in memory functioning nor severe memory loss associated with Alzheimer disease.
Which of the following biological theories of aging states that people age because their cells' normal metabolism produces unstable oxygen molecules?
A) cellular clock theory
B) free-radical theory
C) telomerase-injection theory
D) hormonal stress theory
If legal definitions of death are modified to mean death of the higher brain but not necessarily the lower brain, which of the following would become a legal practice?
A) assisted suicide of terminally ill patients
B) mercy-killing of patients in chronic and severe pain
C) overdoses of pain medication to comatose patients
D) disconnection from life-support systems of patients with no higher-level brain activity