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8. What are the most common cells that line the surface of the alveoli and are therefore associated with the exchange of gases within the lungs?

8. What are the most common cells that line the surface of the alveoli and are therefore associated with the exchange of gases within the lungs?




17)

A normal hematocrit is approximately ________.

18)

Which of the following is NOT a protein found in plasma?


Page Ref: 438
19)

The most abundant plasma protein is ________.


Page Ref: 438

20)

Erythrocytes are synthesized in the ________ under the control of ________.


Page Ref: 440

21)

What hematopoietic growth factor controls red blood cell synthesis, and what organ releases it?




22)

What is the most abundant type of blood cell?
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 443

23)

Which of the following leukocytes is a phagocyte?
Diff: 5

Page Ref: 444


24)

Which type of leukocyte defends against parasitic infections?
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 444
25)

B cells and T cells fall under what category of leukocytes?
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 445
26)

What type of leukocyte differentiates into macrophages in the tissues?
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 445
27)

What type of cell is the precursor for platelets?
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 445

28)

The ________ functions primarily as the region of the lungs where the majority of gas exchange occurs.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 459
29)

________ are the most common cells that line the surface of the alveoli and are therefore associated with the exchange of gases within the lungs.
Diff: 3

Page Ref: 459

30)

What type of cell in the respiratory tract functions in phagocytosis of inhaled pathogens and foreign particles?
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 459

31)

The ________ is bounded by the interior surface of the chest wall and the exterior surface of the lung.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 459

32)

When air is no longer moving through the respiratory tract and the airway is open to the environment, the pressure within the lung is equal to ________.
Diff: 5

Page Ref: 462
33)

The difference between ________ pressure and ________ pressure drives air into and out of the lungs.
Diff: 3

Page Ref: 462
34)

When intra-alveolar pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure ________.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 462

35)

As the volume of the lung increases, atmospheric pressure ________.
Diff: 2

Page Ref: 464

36)

The surface tension of the alveolus is reduced by surfactants produced by the ________ cells.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 468

37)

A(n) ________ is used clinically to measure lung volumes and rates of air flow.
Diff: 3

Page Ref: 471
38)

________ refers to the volume of air moved into and out of the lungs in a single breath during unforced breathing.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 473
39)

________ is the sum of tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 473
40)

Functional residual capacity is comprised of ________.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 473

41)

Which of the following measurements cannot be determined by a spirometer?
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 473
42)

A decrease in ________ is indicative of a restrictive pulmonary disease.
Diff: 6

Page Ref: 473
43)

A decrease in ________ is indicative of an obstructive pulmonary disease.
Diff: 6

Page Ref: 473

44)

The volume of air moved into the lungs every minute is referred to as ________.
Diff: 3

Page Ref: 473

45)

As the air is saturated with water vapor (humidified) upon entry into the conducting pathway, there will be ________.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 481

46)

The relationship between the concentration of a gas in solution and the partial pressure of that gas can be described by ________.
Diff: 5

Page Ref: 481

47)

In a mixture of gases, the movement of an individual gas within the mixture is primarily determined by the ________.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 483

48)

The contractile portion of the thin filament is composed of what protein?
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 325
49)

What is the protein component of the thin filament that binds to calcium thereby initiating skeletal muscle contraction?
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 325

50)

The shortening of a skeletal muscle fiber during contraction involves ________.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 327

51)

During skeletal muscle contraction, as the muscle shortens, the thick and thin filaments ________.
Diff: 3

Page Ref: 327

52)

The repeated, oscillating interaction between actin and myosin that results in the generation of force by a skeletal muscle cell is called ________.
Diff: 2

Page Ref: 327

53)

The myosin head is converted into the high-energy state by ________.
Diff: 5

Page Ref: 327
54)

The release of an inorganic phosphate from the myosin molecule directly results in the ________.
Diff: 5

Page Ref: 328
55)

In order for crossbridge cycling to occur, the actin-myosin complex must be broken by the ________.
Diff: 5

Page Ref: 328
56)

The sequence of events that links the action potential to changes in skeletal muscle force development is called ________.
Diff: 3

Page Ref: 329
57)

The binding of calcium to the subunit of troponin will directly result in ________.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 331

58)

What is the function of T tubules?
Diff: 3

Page Ref: 331

59)

What is a motor unit?
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 329

60)

In order to allow discrete contractile events to occur, calcium is rapidly removed from the cytoplasm via ________.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 331

61)

As skeletal muscle is further stretched beyond the length where optimum force is developed, ________.
Diff: 5

Page Ref: 340

62)

Which of the following is NOT one of the primary functions of the kidneys?
Diff: 3

Page Ref: 510
63)

The primary function of the kidneys involves regulating the ________ and the ________ of plasma and interstitial fluid.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 510

64)

Which of the following is NOT part of the urinary system?
Diff: 3

Page Ref: 511

65)

The ________ is the functional unit of the kidney.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 512
66)

During what process are molecules selectively removed from the tubule lumen, moved into the interstitial space, and removed from the kidneys by the peritubular capillaries and the vasa recta?
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 515

67)

What is the process whereby protein-free plasma moves by bulk flow from the glomerulus into Bowman's capsules?
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 515

68)

Changes in mean arterial pressure have the potential to alter glomerular filtration rate by directly altering ________.
Diff: 5

Page Ref: 519

69)

What is a normal glomerular filtration rate?
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 519

70)

During myogenic regulation of glomerular filtration rate, an increase in mean arterial pressure will ________.
Diff: 5

Page Ref: 520


71)

In tubuloglomerular feedback, an increase in glomerular filtration rate would increase the ________, thereby stimulating the release of a paracrine factor from the macula densa that would ________.
Diff: 6

Page Ref: 521
72)

Contraction of mesangial cells results in a ________, which decreases glomerular filtration.
Diff: 5

Page Ref: 520

73)

Which of the following is NOT a basic process of the gastrointestinal system?
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 570

74)

A mixture of food particles with gastric juice is called ________.
Diff: 3

Page Ref: 575

75)

________ cells are responsible for secreting pepsinogen into the lumen of the stomach.
Diff: 3

Page Ref: 575

76)

________ are phagocytic leukocytes that attack parasitic cells by releasing toxic molecules once they have attached themselves to the parasite.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 668

77)

When a B cell contacts a foreign or abnormal antigen, it develops into a ________ that releases ________.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 669

78)

Which of the following is NOT one of the body's nonspecific defenses against pathogens?
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 670

79)

Natural killer cells can kill infected or abnormal cells by the release of ________, which form pores in the target cell's membrane.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 674

80)

If bacteria are exposed to a B cell in the spleen, they will initiate a(n) ________.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 675
81)

Compared to humoral immunity, cell-mediated immunity is more likely to defend against which of the following?
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 675
82)

Why is a secondary immune response stronger?
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 677

83)

Receptors on every T cell detect foreign antigens on cells of the body by their association with the ________ on the surface of the infected cells of the body.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 681

84)

Sex determination of a fetus is controlled by the secretion of ________, which is coded for by the ________ gene.
Diff: 5

Page Ref: 633
85)

The presence of both dihydrotestosterone and ________ in the fetus will further the development of the ________ into the male reproductive tract.
Diff: 6

Page Ref: 635
86)

The absence of both dihydrotestosterone and ________ in the fetus will further the development of the ________ into the female reproductive tract.
Diff: 6

Page Ref: 635
87)

In the female reproductive cycle, ________ is/are normally produced every 28 days.
Diff: 3

Page Ref: 636

88)

Fertilization usually occurs in the ________.
Diff: 3

Page Ref: 645

89)

The hormonal trigger for menstruation involves a ________.
Diff: 4

Page Ref: 652




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