Jane Juffer (1998) argues that it is important to revisit the...

Jane Juffer (1998) argues that it is important to revisit the discourse on masturbation from the 1970s because there are 'important and still relevant lessons' to be learned from it, including: 

The 'liberation' of the home as a site of masturbatory activity without regulatory codes.

Masturbation laid the foundation for much of the erotica and porn of the 1980s and 90s, and presented them as basically one and the same.

The emphasis on the female body and its pleasures contributed to the creation of a hierarchy of appropriate masturbatory activity and fantasy material that was essentialist and attempted to 'normalize' desire.

None of the above are important lessons to be learned from revisiting masturbation discourse from the 1970s.

According to Brents and Hausbeck (2007), employing a framework grounded in economic and cultural shifts promises to add value to analyses of sex work because

It de-historicizes the meanings and understanding of sex work.

It takes into account social construction and material conditions of gender and sexuality.

It situates changes only in cultural contexts, making it easy to understand such shifts.

It shows how sex work isalways exploitative. 

The majority of the clitoris is external. 



How is the concept of the "naturalization" of gender differences used and to what ends (in academic work on gender)?

An increasingly popular scientific approach that demonstrates that these gender differences are based in biology rather than social processes.

A critique of the ways in which "naturalistic" (physiological) explanations of gender difference are supported by culture, mass media, religion, knowledge systems (e.g., science and medicine).

An important part of the self-help movement that shows that gender differences are normal, natural, and to be expected, that conflict arises out of the mistaken assumption that such differences can and should be changed, a set of exercises meant to help individuals come to terms with their inner essence.

All of the above.

According to Jessica Fields in "Knowing Girls: Gender and Learning in School-Based Sexuality Education," in what ways was the meaning of "knowing" differently gendered for girls and boys in the sexual education classroom?

Girls experienced embarrassment and vulnerability when female bodies were presented and discussed in class because knowledge of female bodies was equated with knowing the specific female bodies in the classroom.

Girls' answering a question incorrectly during class was perceived as an indication that they were sexually inexperienced.

Girls' answering a question correctly during class was perceived as an indication that they were sexually promiscuous.

Both A and C. 

All of the above. 

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