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All the below questions are also in attached word document 1....

All the below questions are also in attached word document

1. Intraneuronal communication can be defined as ___________

a) chemical signaling between neurons

b) signals within an individual neuron

c) signals shared electrically (through gap junctions) among several neurons

d) electrical (ion-based) signaling between neurons

2. ______ directly causes a change in voltage across the neuron cell membrane

a) Re-distribution of ion charge

b) Neurotransmitter release at the synapse

c) Oligodendrocyte ensheathing of axons

d) The types of lipids in the neural membrane

3. EPSPs ________the cell membrane , moving the membrane potential __________threshold for firing an action potential

a) hyperpolarize; farther from

b) depolarize; farther from

c) depolarize; closer to

d) hyperpolarize; closer to

4. Using the steps identified below, place the steps of neuron function in the correct order

1. action potential is initiated at the axon hillock

2. synaptic vesicles fuse with the membrane of axon terminal

3. membrane potential change at the dendrite of the postsynaptic neuron

4. action potential travels along the axon of the postsynaptic neuron

5. neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft

(HINT 3 is the first step)

a)3,1,2,4,5

b) 3,1,4,2,5

c) 3,4,1,5,2

d) 3,1,4,5,2

5. At resting membrane potential the concentration of sodium is higher _______the neuron and the concentration of potassium is higher_______the neuron

a)outside;inside

b)inside;outside

c)inside;inside

d)outside;outside

6. At rest________in extracellular fluid than in intracellular fluid

a) calcium is lower

b) sodium is lower

c) chloride is higher

d) potassium is higher

7.

Using the image, identify the location during an action potential when sodium will have the highest intracellular (inside the cell) concentration

a)site1

b)site3

c)site5

d)site6

8. If a stimulus opens a sodium channel in a neuron membrane, the membrane potential will become__________

a) repolarized

b)hyperpolarized

c)less negative

d)less positive

9. During an action potential, potassium channels

a) open at the same time that sodium channels open

b) contribute to repolarization (restoring polarized state

c) contribute to depolarization

d) opened when the membrane potential reached firing threshold

10. which set of ions is important to normal neural function/physiology and action potential production?

a) sodium, magnesium, calcium, sulfur

b) sodium, potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen

c) potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, chloride

d) potassium, chloride , sodium

11. Which ions would expect to have higher intracellular concentrations at resting potential?

a) potassium and chloride

b) potassium

c) potassium and sodium

d) sodium and chloride

12. In neural function, what is the role played by the energy source ATP? The energy from the bonds of ATP are needed to ________

a) open sodium channels when membrane potential reaches firing threshold

b) generate an EPSPs in dendrites

c) engage the sodium-potassium pump during repolarization

d) trigger an action potential at the axon hillock

13.___________is an essential step for causing vesicles to fuse with the presynaptic membrane

a) calcium influx into the presynaptic terminal

b) Hyperpolarization at the presynaptic terminal

c) movement of chloride ions across the postsynaptic membrane of dendrites

d) inhibition at the postsynaptic membrane of dendrites

14. an action potential will be generated if stimulation_______________

a) causes the membrane potential at the axon hillock to reach threshold for firing action potential

b) causes an IPSP in the postsynaptic membrane of the dendrite of the target neuron

c) activates the sodium potassium pump

leads to chloride influx

d) inactivates voltage-gated sodium channels at the axon hillock

15. The purpose of myelinating neural axons is to ____________

a) increase Cl-influx

b) generate an EPSP

c) depolarize the presynaptic membrane

d) increase the speed             that action potentials travel down an axon

e) spatial summation

16. where in the neuron will you definitely find voltage-gated ion channels

a) dendrites

b) mitochondria

c) cell soma

d) nucleus

e) axon hillock

17. which of the following ions enhance neurotransmitter release into synaptic cleft

a) Ca2+

b) Na+

c) Cl-

d) S2-

18. The time course of the electrical/ionic features of an action potential are determined mainly by _________

a) Na+, K+

b) Na+, K-

c) Na-, Cl-

d) Na+, K-, Ca2+

19. At the maximum amplitude of an action potential, potassium ions ________the cell membrane through (at) potassium channels/gates

a) enter

b)block

c)accumulate

d)exit

20. When potassium ions leave the intracellular space near the maximum height of an action potential, they will_________membrane

a)repolarize

b) depolarize

c)bind to receptor on

d) inactivate the Na-K pump

21. which of the following is “NOT” a feature of the relative refractory period?

a) occurs during hyperpolarization

b) occurs before cell membrane potential returns to Vrest (resting membrane potential) after an action potential

c) K+ ions flow out of the neuron

d) It is not possible to produce an action potential regardless of stimulus strength

e) The intracellular compartment is being depleted of positive charge

22. __________is the balance of an ion’s concentration gradient and any charge attraction or repulsion

a) receptor binding

b) electrochemical gradient

c)vesicular release

d)dissociation

23. What feature of voltage-gated sodium channels prevents action potentials from occurring during the absolute refractory period?

a) active state conformation

b) closed state conformation

c) inactive state conformation

d) none of these

24. What is the extent and direction of action potential flow in a neuron?

a)Axon hillockàAxon terminal

b) Dendrite-àAxon hillock

c) Axonàdendrite

d) Cell soma àAxon terminal

e) Axonà Axon hillock

25. Saltatory conduction occurs because

a)myelin is a good conductor of ions

b) sodium channels are concentrated at the nodes of Ranvier

c) myelin has many sodium and potassium channels to facilitate action potential generation

d) potassium channels are concentrated at the nodes of Ranvier

e) both B and D

1 Attachment
1. Intraneuronal communicaTon can be defned as ___________ a) chemical signaling between neurons b) signals within an individual neuron c) signals shared electrically (through gap juncTons) among several neurons d) electrical (ion-based) signaling between neurons 2. ______ directly causes a change in voltage across the neuron cell membrane a) Re-distribuTon oF ion charge b) Neurotransmi±er release at the synapse c) Oligodendrocyte ensheathing oF axons d) ²he types oF lipids in the neural membrane 3. EPSPs ________the cell membrane , moving the membrane potenTal __________threshold For fring an acTon potenTal a) hyperpolarize; Farther From b) depolarize; Farther From c) depolarize; closer to d) hyperpolarize; closer to 4. Using the steps idenTfed below, place the steps oF neuron FuncTon in the correct order 1. acTon potenTal is iniTated at the axon hillock 2. synapTc vesicles Fuse with the membrane oF axon terminal 3. membrane potenTal change at the dendrite oF the postsynapTc neuron 4. acTon potenTal travels along the axon oF the postsynapTc neuron 5. neurotransmi±er is released into the synapTc cle³ (HIN² 3 is the frst step) a)3,1,2,4,5 b) 3,1,4,2,5
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