Biomedical Ethics Terminology Assignment.
Remember: If 1 word is incorrect in True/False: then it's false
Note: It is recommended that you save your response as you complete each question. Question 1 (2 points) Question 1 options: active euthanasia is the intentional ending of life in response to a competent request and active euthanasia is without such a request. Save Question 2 (2 points) The best interest standard or judgment is essentially what one person believes would be in the best interests of or the most beneFcial for the patient when, for what ever reasons, they cannot speak for themselves and have not left their own expresses wishes. Question 2 options: True False Save Question 3 (2 points) A doctor abandons a patient when he or she terminates the doctor/patient relationship without reasonable notice or any provisions for maintaining continuous medical care. Question 3 options: True False Save Question 4 (2 points) Assault is the act of touching another without permission punishable under criminal and civil laws. Question 4 options: True False Save Question 5 (2 points) Question 5 options: Older children are asked to agree to research and treatment a little di±erent than adults by providing
rather than informed consent. Save Question 6 (2 points) Competence is the clinical determination about the patient's ability to make medical decisions for him or herself. Question 6 options: True False Save Question 7 (2 points) Question 7 options: ________ is the ethical equivalent to the Golden Rule meaning a required universal unconditional duty that must be performed without respect to the consequences. Save Question 8 (2 points) What is the name of the order in a patient's medical record to not revive the patient who develops cardiopulmonary arrest or who stops breathing and their heart stops? Question 8 options: Save Question 9 (2 points) Question 9 options: ___________ is the moral theory that utilizes the responsibility associated with the position of a particular profession, occupation, or societal role to justify action even without regard to the consequences. Save Question 10 (2 points) Consequentialism is an ethical theory in which we decide the moral worth of an act by analyzing the consequences Question 10 options:
Biomedical Ethics Terminology 1 Abandonment of patient Termination of a doctor patient relationship by the physician without reasonable notice or provision for continuity of health care. Abortion The termination of a pregnancy prior to birth. Active euthanasia Intentional or direct ending of a human life either in response to a competent request (voluntary active euthanasia) or without such a request (nonvoluntarv active euthanasia). Advance directives Instructions (usually written) from a competent individual that stipulates the forms of medical treatment to be provided by caregivers and designates someone to act as a proxy should the person at some future date lose decision making capacity. Altruism A concern primarily with the well-being of others rather than one's own self-interest. Assault An intentional physical attack designed to make the victim fearful; produces reasonable apprehension of harm. Actionable under criminal and civil law. Assent Agreement to research or treatment given by a mature minor not legally old enough to give a valid informed consent. Autonomy (One of Four in Principlism Theory) 1) Derived from Greek words meaning "self rule." Referring to the patient's right of self-determination concerning medical care. Autonomy may be used in various senses including freedom of action, effective deliberation, and authenticity. It supports such moral and legal principles as respect for persons and informed consent. 2) Making decisions for oneself, in light of a personal system of values and beliefs. Battery The willful touching of one person by another without permission. Actionable under criminal and civil law. Beneficence (Principlism Theory) The state or act of intentionally doing or producing good. The principal of beneficence involves duties to prevent harm, remove harm, and promote the good of another person. The obligation of health care professionals to seek the well-being or benefit of other patients. Duties of beneficence concern the welfare of others. Best Interest standard A judgment based on an idea of what would be most beneficial to a patient, usually pursued in the absence of a patient's expressed wishes. Bioethics Literally "life ethics." The philosophical study of moral and ethical issues especially those relating to scientific and medical advances. Bioethics is a result of the various human rights movements responding to the de- humanizing phenomena caused by political, economical, technological, and biomedical problems emerging since the end of 1950s mainly in the U.S., Europe and some other places in the world. For example, these various human rights movements are civil liberty movement, woman's rights movement, student movement, and so on. Oncologist Van Rensselaer Potter coined the term. Bioethics committees An interdisciplinary group that deals with conflicts of values in patient care in acute and long-term settings. They discuss policy issues (e.g., regarding withholding and withdrawing of life-sustaining treatments). Biomedical ethics The combination of bioethics and medical ethics (see below) as medical ethics is a subset of bioethics and the terms are frequently interchanged.
Capacity A patient's ability to make decisions about the provision of medical care for him or herself. This is a clinical determination that is specific to the decision at hand. As such, it may vary from time to time, or from decision to decision (see also Competence). Categorical Imperative A term used by Immanuel Kant to refer to an unconditional duty one is required to perform. An act is immoral if the rule that would authorize it cannot be universalized. Consequences should not be taken into consideration. For example, "physicians have a duty not to lie to their patients". This is a secularized version of "The Golden Rule." Competence A legal concept that describes people who are able to make decisions for themselves. Minors are presumed to be incompetent, except under certain specified conditions. The corollary medical-ethical term is decisional capacity. Confidentiality The professional-client promise not to reveal information without consent. Conscience The view that one has an inner sense of right and wrong, by which one perceives one's possibilities and responsibilities. Consent See Informed consent. Consequentialism Deciding the moral worth of an action based on an analysis of outcomes. For some variations, we select rules for which the consequences are likely to be desirable without analyzing each discrete act. Cost benefit analysis An analytic procedure to aid In balancing a procedure's or program’s fiscal cost with its benefits, frequently expressed in dollars. Sometimes referred to as risk-benefit analysis. Defendant The person in a criminal case who is accused of committing a crime. The party in a civil action against whom suit is brought. Deontology (Duty) The special responsibility associated with a particular profession or occupation or societal role. The set of moral theories that justify questionable actions by pointing to the agent's role-related responsibilities, often without regard to the consequences of a specific act. This kind of ethical theory suggests that people know moral action from intuition more than from reasoning and analysis. Immanuel Kant's view is that ethics comes from innate conditions of the human mind. We have a duty to abide by the moral law built into our minds. Compromises and little white lies are not permissible. Descriptive Ethics A kind of ethics that talks about how people DO behave in regards to one another, rather than how they SHOULD behave. This is also referred to as anthropology or sociology or psychology; this kind of activity sees itself as akin to the empiric sciences. Distributive Justice The way goods and resources are divided in a society falls under principles of distributive justice. Do we feel that fairness requires equal access to goods, resources, and services? Do we feel that some polarity of wealthy and poor is acceptable? We would address questions such as these under notions of "distributive justice." Do not resuscitate An order in a patient's record not to revive a patient who develops a cardiopulmonary arrest (DNR order).
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